IDIOGRAPHIC VS NOMOTHETIC
Definition OF IDIOGRAPHIC
To study individuals it is best to study subjective expriences to have a more useful descriptive detailed understanding of behaviour.
Approach:Humanistic (Person Centred Therapy)
Reasearch Method = Case Studies & CLINCIAL INTERVIEWS
Definition of NOMOTHETIC: study LARGE groups of individuals helps us to PREDICT and CONTROL behaviour
Approaches:Behaviourist (SKINNER, PAVLOV)Biological (Mcguffin Twinstudy of DEPRESSION)
Research Method = Lab expriments and Observations
ADVANTAGES OF IDIOGRAPHIC
:) FOCUSES ON THE INDIVDUAL subjective expriences which make them unique sees people as individuals rather than the NOMOTHETHIC approach which doesnt view people as individuals
HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGIST 'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'.
Person Centred Therapy helps to treat DEPRESSION becasue individuals are made to feel valued and develop their potential
:) RICH DESCRIPTIVE INFORMATION A MORE COMPLETE UNDERSTANDING of a person and can provide a base for future NOMOTHETHIC research
E.G PIAGET NATURALISTIC observation of his children allowed him to describe the process of ASSIMULATION AND ACCOMODATION provide the base for his nomothethic reasearch into the STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMEMT
DIS ADVANTAGES OF IDIOGRAPHIC
:( REGARDED AS UNSCIENTIFIC BECAUSE:
Subjective expriences cant be EMPIRICALLY TESTED.
Interpretations may itself be subjective exprience may in itself be subjective and unreliable.
e.g Piagets naturalistic observation of his children can be interpreted diffrently to suit his findings.
:( CANNOT REALLY BE GENERALISED TO OTHERS:
Because of SAMPLE SIZE,
the humanistic approach reject this on purpose because humans are individuals and are uniquue
ADVANTAGES OF THE NOMOTHETIC APPROACH
HELPED PSYCHOLOGY TO BE MORE SCIENTIFIC
Laws and theories that CAN BE EMPRICALLY TESTED
This is useful because we can predict and control behaviour unlike the idiographic of which no attempts are made to find general laws of behaviour only subjective exprience which only applys to individuals.
THE NOMOTHETHIC APPROACH LOOKS FOR CAUSE OF BEHAVIOUR-E.G BIOLOGICAL SSRI,MAO,TRYCLICS, to treat depression
DIS ADVANTAGES OF NOMOTHETHIC APPROACH
General laws may predict GROUP behaviour but may not apply to individuals this means the 'whole' person is lost.
e.g knowing that 65% of people obeyed authority figure does not predict wheter a certain individual will do.
therefore OVEREMPHASIS SIMILARITIES and UNDERPLAYS DIFRRENCES between people
NOMOTHETHIC METHODS ARE USUALLY EXPRIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS there is a problem of GENERALISATION to every day life e.g Serial position curve (Murdoch)
idiographhivc VS NOMOTHETHIC
CONFLICT AND COMPLIMENT
BOTH can CONFLICT depending on the research and psychologist appraoch
if the researcher wants to DEVELOP THEORIES THAT APPLIES TO LARGE POPULATION the the NOMOTHETIC approach will be taken
however if the PSYCHOLOGIST is intrested in the UNIQUENESS of a person the th IDIOGRAPHIC Method will be taken
IDIOGRAPHIC AND NOMOTHETHIC CAN COMPLIMENT EACH OTHER: COGNTIVE APPROACH USE BOTH ( CLIVE AND MURDOCH) BIOLOGICAL (phenius Gage and Muguffin)