ICT systems and their components

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What is ICT

Ict concerns a devise that allows the

storage , manipulation , transmission and recipt of data

Software..... ord processor , database , spreadsheet 

Hardware.....computers, digital camaras and scanners

What is a ICT system ?

iT is the way of doing something through the use of information and communication technology.  It is used to control the way in which something is done

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Inputs Processing Output

Inputs

This involves capturing and entering data into a system this could be done through keybords or scanning or bar coding 

Processing 

Means performing actions on the input data, this would involve performing calculations , searching ,sorting , aranging, presenting , converting , transfering , classifying ect

Output

These are the results or the information produced once the data has been processed . All information systems produce output

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component of ict system

Six components of an ict system 

PE DISH PRO

People - Needed to supply data to the ict system and also to make judgements and decision from the output supplied from the system. Is it up to a certain standard? Is it good enough ?

Data - Data is the raw material which is entered into an ict system. It is then processed and coverted to information which we can easily understand

Information - Information is the output , it comes as result of processing data 

Software - Computer programs for and example word processor , which contains a set of instructions to get the job complete 

Hardware- These are physical components that can be touched such as a printer , keybords , mouse and scanners.

Procedures -Determins what needs to be done and when, it also covers the passing of data or information  between different people . 

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Data

Forms of data - Numbers , Words , Images and Sounds

What is data  - Data a forms that are meaningless because they lack revelance. It is normally in a form that humans cannot understand.

How can data arise - Surveys , Questionaires , transactions , Result of an experiment , automatic measurement from environmental quantities , 

These are all forms of data

  • 42
  • rabbits
  • 16:00
  • 76
  • apples
  • 09743245530
  • £40
  • seaside
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Coding Data

Coding data  - Data is normally coded during collection or when input into and ICT System

Reasons for Coding data - Coded data takes less effort effort to type in.  

More data can appear on the screen at once 

Less storage space

It is easier to check the code is accurate using valadation check

Problems with coding data 

Coarsening of data - During the process some of the detail in the data may be lost 

Confusing -People may not understand the data trying to be represented eg switzerland is CHE 

Accuracy -When collecting data about peoples oppinions it might be difficult to code their answers with accuracy 

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Encoding Data

Encoding data is the process of putting data/information into a specific format which allows effective transmission or storage by and ICT system ( Data is converted to binery before processing)

Decoding- This is the opposite to encoding , this is where coded format get changed back to its original form

Examples  ASCII - This type of encoding consists of a series of characters on the keyboard. It then converts these characters to BINARY , which can be read by the device. For an example A = 01000001

Reasons

Encoding is done so that a document can be read by another computer or person that may not have the software the the document was created on. For an example the document could be saved as a text file in ASCII.

To compress data - As a result of compressing data , the data will occupy less space on a storage device and make it faster to send to other computers over a network

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Encoding Images , Encoding Sound

Images - Image files are encoded , the format is changed and the image is represented in a certain way when it is stored

The way in which an image is encoded depends on the way it was produced ( Digital camara , scanning)

jpegs, vectors , bitmapped , GIF ,  TIFF ,WMF

 

Sound - Sound is not digital therefore it has to converted to a specific format through encoding to be read by a computer. Sound files are quite large and occupy alot of space. To reduce the space needed for a file a technique called compression is used during encoding

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Types of Encoding For Sound

SHOCKWAVE - Used for very high quality sound with very small file size

WAV - This is used with windows for storing sound files. Files in this format are not highly compressd

 

 

MIDI - Musical instrument digital Interface. Used mainly to communicate between things such as electronic keybords. Midi files are compressed and files are very small.

 

MP3 - This format uses compression to reduce the file size considerably and this is why MP3 is used  for portable music such as ipods .

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