Template = prewritten slides with images and basic info, saves you having to redesign. Macro = storing a sequence of keystrokes and menu choices which can be repeated by running the macro e.g. 'insert headmasters signature in a school letter'
Command line = expert using it to find information on network congnition. advantage = fast to run disadvantage = need to know the commands.
GUI = interface fro a primary school pupil using a maths program. advantage = fun to use/interactive. disadvantage = needs a powerful processer
Query = when you interrogate a database to find some information - used to find out which paitent has an appointment tommorrow.
Report = the way in which the database provides information in an approicate format for the user - a consultant having a report on how effective a treatment has been.
Import/Export = when you get information from another application or you transfer information into another application - transfer information in a patient from a surgery to a hospital database.
Biometric Devices/Data encoded
Retina Scanner - to gain access into a room. advantage - it is diffcult to copy. disadvantage - it is expensive
Touch Senstivtive Screen = moblie devics to dial. advantage - saves having to type
Command Line = expert using it to find information on network cognition. advntage - fast to run disadvantage - need to knoew the commands (not good for noive cimputer users)
Data encoded = it had fewer transcription errors. problem - can corsen data e.g. light brown and dark brown are classed as the colour brown.
HTML is better at coding because allows greater control of behivour of text and positioning of images.
Relational database approach over flat file
Flexability - tables can be combined
Data only has to be inputted onces so saves time and money.
- x-rays and scan results are now available almost instantly across a hospitals LAN from radiography to a constutlant's room. This allows quicker and more efficent diagonisis, patients cna also be shown the images when they are in their own beds.
- Expert systems such as NHS direct are now available over the web, which allows patients to access information without leaving their home and saves doctors from dealing with minor injuries.
- doctor's surigies can now access blood test results from hospital pathology labs across the web, allowing faster and more up-to-date results, hence allowing more accurate diagnosis.
- Internal communications across a hospital LAN or consult with an expert in another coountry quickly via emal.
- Videoconferencing from a doctor's surgery to a skin specilist fro remote diagnosis.
- Patient record keeping systems allowing better internal transfer of information
- Automatic stock control of supplies and medicines
- def: the use of computer system and mathematic equations to imiate real life situations
- use: finacial forecasting e.g. allows gov to predict what will happen if they raise taxes or reduced interest rates. weather forecasting e.g. allows people to predict when huuricanes are going to occur so people canbecome prepared. advantage = possible to experience a lot more situations disadvantage = some situations are hard to model.
Costs of keeping up-to-date data
- human e.g. cost of human resources to input data into a computer system at a lawyer's firm.
- time e.g. time taken to get the data checked twice by different people before sending off e.g. at newspaper company, jornalist column
- financial e.g. cost of printing (printer and copier machines) and posting letters from the school to the pupil's parents
Network and stand-alone computers
- stand - alone advantages = cheaper hardware and software as they can be expensive, less ICT knowledge is needed, fewer problems with viruse infections.
Disadvantages = transfer of files between computers is sometimes necessary e.g. project team working on the same project, hard to keep up-to-date e.g. care needs to be taken so that two pieces fo the same data aren't produced. Networks only produce one up dated version, harder to install software e.g. have to install the software on each computer.
- networks advantages = ability to share files e.g. no need to make copies as it is avaiable one every computer, improved sercuity e.g. much easier to make sure that material from the internet is and can be checked, easier to back up files e.g. back up performed by network manager so is taken serciously and less likely to lose data.
Disadvantages = techniqual knowledge is needed e.g. specialist staff are needed, cost e.g. there is a intial high cost of all equqiment and training invovled.
- CAD = walkthrough - a person to enter the building and investigate the views from the inside before the builing is built. zoom - ability to zoom in and out.
- Advantages - can easily scale drawings up and down, stress/strain fucnstions cna be carried out to checkt eh builing is safe, htaching/rendering - adding different types of shading to an image to add realism.
- CAM = takes input from CAM packages and uses the information to produce a set instructions to give to machinnery to manufacture.
- Advantages - cheaper manufacture (costs are reduced), better quality (products won't have any mistakes as humans are not invovled), can make small quantities that would normally be uneconomical.
ICT and Home Entertainment
- Developments = can download music onto mobile devices like iphone,ipods. Benefit = allows user to select the tracht ehy want wihtout having to buy the whole album.
- Interactive TV = allows users to control what they watch by using the remote to change channels. Also can shop, check email and book hoildays because they can transmit information.
- the ability to talk and connect to other people by the use of social networking sites. Benefit = allows users to get in touch with people who they haven't spoken to e.g. long lost family relatives.
- allows user to get films and games downloaded instantly onto your laptop. Benefit = the user doesn't have to waste time by going out and buying the game in a shop which can waste time.
Disadvantages = addiction to video games, cyberbullying, can get into computer crime e.g. illegally downloading movies, over - reilant on ICT.
Aiding decision making process
- Montior progress: e.g. shop analyses of its POS terimal operators.
- can target reasoning and strategy (resources) making to gain advantage over competitors. e.g. advertising and marketing a product should be aimed at people likely to buy it otherwise it is a waste of time.