ICT Cambridge Nationals R001 January 2018 Notes


CCTV Systems

CCTV is a way of monitoring workers. CCTV cameras can monitor and record what employees are doing. 
It is the use of video cameras (input device) to transmit a signal to a secific set of monitors (output device).

Benefits of CCTV

  • Protects employees 
  • Protects the premises at night or juring weekends
  • Deters criminals from committing a crime in the prescence of a CCTV camera

 Problems with CCTV

  • Employees view it as an invaision of privicy
  • They will feel untrusted in their work place
  • Expensive to set up
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Main 3 Network Topologies

The main 3 topologies are:

  • Ring: computers are connected to eachother in the form of a circle. The information chooses to go left or right to get to its destination. 
  • Star: information goes in and out from the centre point computer or device to other devices connected until it gets to its destintion.
  • Bus/Line: the information goes into the central line from each computer and travels along the main line to its destination. It checks each computer to see if it's the right device to accept the information. 
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Advantages and Disadvantages of the Ring topology


  • Compared to a star topology, it uses less cabling so, therefore, is less expensive
  • It can operate over larger distances and handle more data than a bus topology
  • Signals do not interfear with eachother 


  • If one computer in the network stops working then the whole network goes down because it can no longer pass on the signal
  • It can be difficult to expand a ring network because adding a new computer means interrupting the whole communication ring
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Advantages and Disadvantages of the Bus topology


  • It's easy to add more computers to extend the network
  • It uses less cabling than the other network designs
  • If a single computer breaks, it does not disable the whole network


  • A break or fault anywhere on the cable will disable the whole network
  • The size of the network is limited by the capacity and the length of the bus
  • A single bus is not suitable for networks with a lot of computers and a lot of data being transmitted
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Advantages and Disadvantages of the Star topology


  • If one connection breaks, the rest of the network is unaffected
  • As each computer has its own cabling, the load on each section of cabling is less
  • If there is a fault, it is easier to find and correct, for example by replacing one section of cable


  • It uses more cabling than other topologies, which can be expensive
  • If the central server or hub breaks down, the whole network fails
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Pros and Cons of Wired Networks


  • works at very high speeds
  • private network which only one can connect to, therefore, less chance of hackers, its more secure and is less able to be comprimised
  • large amounts of data can be transferred 


  • expensive to set up and cost of installation of cables can be higher for bigger networks
  • cables will cause clutter
  • difficult to place cables in an older building
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Pros and Cons of Wireless Networks


  • easy to set up 
  • no need for cables 
  • can connect multiple devices
  • can be used anywhere as long as in range 


  • less secure and compicated to configure 
  • walls interfear with connection 
  • slower transfer speeds 
  • quality of videos are worse when transferred 
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Network Components

To connect to a wireless network, all devices must contain a wireless network card

NIC- connects a computer to a network using a cable

Wireless NIC- connects a computer to a network using radio waves 

Router- directs network traffic to correct computer/device

Switch- allows many computers (or devices) to connect to a network 

WAP- connects devices to a network using WI-FI

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Secondary Storage

Backups and secure storage methods are used to safeguard data.

Secondary implies that the storage is EXTERNAL.

For this scenario, best storage option= Additional hard disks in a dedicated server (in another facility as in the case of a fire, the second storage facility would not be affected, backups will be safe)


  • Disks are fixed in the system that are stored securely, therefore not easily stolen
  • Data transferred over a network to another computer which therefore means data is ENCRYPTED= data can be scrambled using a software or when its transmitted between computers over networks, only a code or key can unscramble the data. Trusted people will have access to this key.


  • Expensive and complex to set up
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Moral and Ethical issues with CCTV


Ethical Issue

The ethical principle is that they will be able to see staff doing things that are personal and might take advantage of this information or judge people on this information.

Moral Issue

The moral principle is that they might abuse this information for their own entertainment or use it for more dubious purposes like blackmail. 

Overall, the security staff will be able to see and access private and confidential video footage that may be seen as intrusive (too personal) for them to access

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Data Theft

If data held on a business computer is lost or stolen, there can be a serious impact on the business, customers and employees.

Legal Implictions: The Data Protection Act states that personal data must be kept secure, therefore, businesses may need to pay financial compensation to any person whose data has been lost or stolen.

Impact on Customer: May lose confidence and trust in the business and move their customs elsewhere. They could also become victims of identity theft.

Impact on Employees: If an employee loses, steals or corrupts data and breaks the IT policy, they can face:

  • a formal written warning (Which Will got in scenario 2)
  • a demotion
  • a dismissal from the job
  • acces rights revoked

Businesses will have to pay compensation, face money loss and may even have to close down. 

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How to Prevent Remote Access and How to Protect da

A firewall can be configured to allow authorised devices and users and also to prevent unauthorised users from accessing the data stored on the company network. 

User ID and Password 

A user ID and password will have to be entered in order to access the network.

A good password consists of:

  • numbers
  • capital letters
  • words unrelated to you
  • a minimum of 8 characters 

Data encryption is also a way of protecting data, the use of a encryption software will make the data unreadable, only trusted people will be in possession of the encryption key or code to unscrable the data. 

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CCTV Cabling

In a CCTV system, we would find lots of different cables attached to the camera such as:

Fibre-Optic - This is a faster type of cable that can send a lot of information at high speeds around the network, although, it is the most expensive to install and needs a professional to install it.

RJ45 - This is the cheapest form of network cabling, easy to install, although, can only be 100m in length, can be easily cut, shouldn't be bent and is not as fast as fibre optic.




Wi-Fi- can have additional devices connected at the same time, although, can be interruptes by walls and has a certain radius before connection is lost, also has a slower bandwith. 

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Biometrics for Added security

Biometrics includes Fingerprint Lock and Facial Recognition which are important for securing data in case someone might steal valuable information.

The benefits of biometrics

  • Added security
  • File Protection

Drawbacks of Biometrics

  • Cuts not allowing fingerprint recognition 
  • Glasses and beards to limit facial recognition.
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These monitoring systems is prety good for companies, But it interferes private life. If you take a look to the straight from the source.  So please, take in mind about it and please, change your mind about avoid this monitoring system. And don`t forget that sex is the best remedy of many health problems.

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