- Created by: becca_102
- Created on: 30-05-19 17:36
"I am the bread of life" John 6 (1)
- People saw the sign with bread but still had no faith - they followed him as they were spiritually more hungry for teaching, John 6:29 "What God wants you to do is to believe in the one he sent".
- Jesus reminds them of God's provision for the Israelities as they wandered in the wilderness (Exodus 16:12) and he provided bread (manna). Jesus points out that like the manna, he is also from God. Jesus is better than the manna, he will never leave his people hungry.
- Replacement Theology: Jesus wants them to look away from Moses and to him in this 'new age'. Jesus is the fulfilment of Old Testament prophecy. Morris: Jesus was greater than Moses.
- Only Jesus through his death and resurrection can truly statisfy, and only he can offer forgiveness and freedom. This was, in part, avaliable in the present, although in the Hebrew of Exodus 3:14, it can be translated as "I will be", emphasising God's enternal existance and unchanging nature.
- The Torah (law) was symbolised by bread. It was the sample of their faith (like bread to their diet).
"I am the bread of life" John 6 (2)
- "Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood will have enternal life" Metaphor, Jews take this literally, drinking blood was forbidden under the law (Leviticus 17:10-14). Metaphor indicates apiritual norishment and satisfaction. Eucharistic significance.
- The author tries to point them from Law to Jesus. The Law was often symbolised by bread - shows that Jesus superseeds the law.
- People do not understand - they think in physical terms and not spiritual ones.
- Bread is associated with the Temple (1 Samuel 21:1) and Jesus, in addition to being the bread, is also the Temple (2:21). Replacement Theology: He is replacing the Temple as the centeral feature of Old Testament beliefs.
- John 6:45 "It is written in the prophets; they will all be taught by God" Was also written in Isaiah 54:13 to reinforce that Jesus would be followed if everyone truly listens to God. God can only be known through Jesus.
"I am the bread of life" John 6 (3)
- Okarie: Jesus reveals himself as the bread that supplies or communicates life, resulting in perfect satisfaction and spiritual fullness.
- Beasely Murry: Jesus is the bread which gives and sustains life, the life of the Kingdom of God.
- Hoskyns: Jesus is the bread of God given, for the whole world.
- C.K Barrett, argues that removing the Eucharistic from the Lord's Supper and moving it to the bread of life discourse in John 6 has the important role of placing the Eucharistic within the wilder works of Jesus ministry.
- "It is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven" Describes the real bread only being given by the Father and sent down from heaven through the son.
- Links with the Samaritain woman (John 4), Jesus also provides living water.
"I am the light of the world" John 8 (1)
- At the end of the Feast of Tabernacles there is a rite of light. 4 golden candle sticks were lit in the temple precincts (Exodus 13:21). Jewish people remembering the 40 years exile in the desert and Moses drawing water from the rocks.
- Jesus declares himself as the "light of the world", as a clear challenge to those that he is the fulfilment of what it going on.
- Humanity lived in a world of darkness and sin, Jesus had come with God's light to show humanity the truth and provide spiritual understanding. Isaiah 9:2 "People walking in darkness will see a great light,"
- John presents it almost like a trial between the Pharisees (who are in darkness) and Jesus (the light)
- His testimonies comes from him and God (you need two in Jewish Law). Representing his unique relationship.
- Okarie: "He is the everlasting light"
"I am the light of the world" John 8 (2)
- "Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life" John 8:12. The christological claim leaves him as a blashphemer in their eyes so he turns away from the temple - the heart of Jewish life - 8:58 "Before Abraham was born, I am". Pharisees want to stone him.
- The law of God was seen as light but ironically it kept the Pharisees in darkness - they could not see their own hypocrisy. They called Jesus a sinner for breaking the Sabbath law.
- "While I am in this world, I am the light of the world" There is a day where Jesus wil pass and darkness will return. John 8:12 = reinforces that those who have faith, the light will remain.
- In healing the blind man, it was a Jewish tradition that Suffering was a punishment for Sin. Jesus shows that suffering is a way to show God's work.
- Connects with the healing of the blind man (9), the pool of siloam represents being sent by God.
"I am the Good Shepherd" John 10 (1)
- Bultmann points out that this is Jesus' last speech to 'the people', significant last words.
- A shepherd was required to lay down his life for the sheep as was the king of Israel (Isaiah 53:5).
- Jesus has sacrifical love for his sheep, in order to save his sheep.
- John 10:16 "I have other sheep that are not in the sheepfold" Gentils will become apart of the flock, universability of Christ message. Shepherd is the guardian for his people. Foreshadows the work of the Apostals, who would spread Jesus message across Palestine.
- "The good shepherd lays down his life for those sheep" The good shepherd will die for his sheep, just as Jesus dies for his flock, humanity. Jesus embodies sacrifice and so the self-identification of God for Jesus is connected with his willingness to die for the people that follow him.
- Morris: "Palestine shepherds planned to live for their sheep not to die for them"
- Okarie: "Jesus is the gate and it's keeper...Jesus opend the door for humankind to God"
"I am the Good Shepherd" John 10 (2)
- "All who have come before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep have not listened to them. I am the gate whoever enters through me will be saved" Jesus us the shepherd who opens the gate, and the sheep follow him. There is only one door for all of humanity and that is Jesus, Jesus is the only means for salvation.
- Morris: The gate here has an air of excuisivity"
- Ezekiel 34:1-5 (Bad Shepherd) "Who have been feeding yourself" and "The sick you have not healed".
- The authority in John 10:18 is clear that he is not only the sacrifical shepherd, he is also the rised Lord. "I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again,"
- Psalm 23, "The Lord is my shepherd" Allusion that Jesus will be the true, good shepherd, and not the false shepherds who lead the flock astray.
"I am the true vine" John 15 (1)
- Jesus uses the OT symbolism of the vine as the nation of Israel. Israel was blessed by God but they became "a corrupt wild vine" Jeremiah 2:21. Jesus describes himself as the true vine and his father is the gardener. All nations will be blessed through him. The disciples are the branches they must remain in the vine to remain fruitful.
- The vine was an important diet of the Jews and therefore became associated with this prosperity. It also became associated with peace as grapes could not be cultivated in a land ravaged by war.
- Parable of the vineyard depicts a vineyard that repeatedly dissapoints it owner - it was destroyed as it could only produce bad grapes - Messianic Link.
- Sacramental image - some scholars believe John is making a link with the wine at the last supper, representing Jesus' blood. However, the life is given to the braches is described as abiding in his love not drinking his blood.
- Lyall: "In order to bear fruit a branch much have the life of the vine passing through it,"
- Okarie: "The vine is a favourable designation for Israel in the OT"
"I am the true vine" John 15 (2)
- Branch cannot bear fruit along, away from the branch. Nor can a Christian unless firmly rooted in Jesus. "If you do not remain in me, you are like a branch that is thrown away"
- Jesus has already been seen to replace the temple, but he is here to replace all of Israel.
- "Love each other as I have loved you" John 15:12. Does not only stresses obedience to this command but also the joy it will bring to the disciples. "I have told you this so joy may be in you".
- Disciples were travelling from the Last Supper and in the garden where he was betrayed. Josephus recorded that the temple had a large golden vine hung over it's enterance may have inspired Jesus teaching, historical origins.
- 15:7 "If you remain in me and my words remain in you, ask whatever you wish and it will be done for you" Similar too "eat my flesh, drink my blood" Eucharistic significance.
- Some scholars argue what the fruit means, some argue it means virtuous living, while others argue it means evangelism. John could leave the meaning open to refer to Christian beliefs, but also to keep moral aspects of it as a possible interpretation.
"I am the true vine" John 15 (3)
- Entire experience and understanding of Jesus and his ministry that is the fruit, growing as one commits to it for longer peorids of time.
- Some New Testament scholars have argued that this passage, similar to the bread of life, also have Eucharistic overtones. Considered as a reflection upon the nature of participatation in faith and communion with Jesus as a whole.
- "You are my friends if you do what I command" (15:14). It is only through obedience that disciples will remain within the vine. Their obedience should be manifested in love, there is no room for personal distruptions. They are more than just servants. Not about love or friendship.
I am sayings
OT background: When God appears to Moses in the burning bush (Exoduc 3:14) he reveals himself as "I am who I am".
- EP Sanders: "I am is understood by the Jews as a claim to equality with God"
- Raymond Brown: "The phrase came to be understood as a divine name"
- Barclay: The wonderful workd of Jesus were not simply wounderful; they were windows of opening on to thr reality which is God.