hydrochloric Acid

- It is made from the reation of hyrdrogen gas with water

- it is a very soluble Gas

- All acids produce H+ ions when they react.

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Hydrochloric acid (2)

Metal + acid ----- salt and hydrogen

Acid + base ----- salt and water

Acid + Alkali ---- salt and water 

Acid + Carbonate ----- salt + carbon dioxide + water 

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salts and their propeties

DIfferent types of salts :-

Sodium sulphate ( acidic salt ) Na2SO4

sodium sulphide ( soluble in water ) Na2S

copper carbonates ( insoluble in water ) CuCO3

But remeber 

Sulphides make sulphates 

nitric acid makes nitrates

hydrochloric acid makes chlorides 

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Neutralisation reactions

Acids -

Turn litmus red

universal indicator yellow/ orange

have a Ph below 7

release H+ ions 

Bases / Alkalis ( if the dissolve in water ) 

turn litmus Blue

universal indicator blue / purple

have a Ph above 7

release OH- ions

a base is a solid metal oxide or a hyrdoxide or a metal carbonate 

The neutralisation reaction is H+  +  OH- ---> H2O 

acid + alkali - water 

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hyrdochloric acid reaction

Is made from hyrdrogen chloride gas and water 

soluble gas

release H+ ions when it reacts 

Hydrochloric acid - HCL ( Ph of 1 )

forms a salt... metal (?) chloride

metals  + hyrdchloric acid ----- (observations ) bubbles and gives off heat

less of a reaction lower down the reactivity series

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reactions and methods of reactions (must learn)

A precipitation reaction --- a reaction which produces an insoluble compound when to aqueous solutions are mixed 

( aqueous solution a solution which contains water)

titration reaction

acid is out into the burette 

a pippette is used to transfer the alkali solution into the conical flask 

a few drops of methyl orange idicator is added acid is run into the alkali drop by drop fome the burette until the colour changes .... this is known as neutral.

It should change from yellow to red, the volume is recorded that is left in the burette

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testing for salts

testing for sulpahte -

dissolve in distilled water 

acidify the solution with dilute HCL 

in a test tube add barium chloride solution and look for a dense white precipitate.

testing for carbonate -

add dilute hcl 

carbonates fizzes becasue they give off carbon dioxide, add lime water to test for CO2 

( will go cloudy if present )

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haber Process

Produces ammonia which is a good fertilizer, maufacture nylon and nitric acid

It is a reversible reaction 

this means that the hyrdogen and nitrogen are reacting to prodcue amonia, but at the same time the amonia is decomposing back into nitrogen and hyrdogen.


during the process they loose some ammonia (reduced profit )


unreacted gasses are recylced back into the reacition vessel

nitrogen + hyrdogen <---> ammonia 

N2 + 3H2 <-----> 2NH3 

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