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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 13-05-13 12:17

HVIII- establishing crown

  • remove Empson and Dudley 1509 & Counsel Learned, set up commissions of Oyer and Terminer to uncover complaints- HATED UPRISING BREWING
  • Marry Catherine of Aragor- retain Anglo-#Spanish connection, ally against France, Medina grow and continue, secure succession & dynasty, international recognition
  • War with France- worrior king, courtiers stafford want chance for glory and profit, Holy League Oct 1511
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  • inherit dad counsel- cautious inclined to work hard
  • Richard Fox advise against French war
  • division in counsel to factions- 1= pro war, 2= anti war
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  • HVIII rely on minions, young favourites- Gentlemen of Priivy Chamber (expect patronage in return)
  • HVIII- hate paperwork. Wolsey did that
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  • academic churchman
  • Royal Chaplain- access king's court
  • 1510 moved into Counsel (fox)
  • 1512- War against France
  • 1518- Universal Peace
  • ambitious, motivated & intelligent
  • Wolsey took over from HVIII
  • 3/4 years made himself indespensible
  • organised campaigns french 1512-14- won secured rise
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  • Act of Resumption 1515- £25,000
  • Tudor Subsidy- 1512 HUGE ACHEIVEMENT- alter old way of taxation, more efficient & accurate £322,000 (only  half £800,000)
  • forced loans £260,000
  • 1525- Amicable Grant- avoid parliament, chose raise tax- Lavenham 10,000 protest (war against France)
  • Overall raised: £322,000 subsidies
  • £240,000 clerical tax
  • £260,000 forced loans
  • 1519- minions banish from court put own men in Privy Chamber (Richard Pace), Autumn 1519 Hen bought back in
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  • [poverty- W find remedies
  • blame problems on enclosure
  • 1517- evidence against 264 landloards - 74= recognisances
  • attempts= frew noble friends or propertied class
  • profiteering- extortianate food prices, 1518 fixed poultry prices- angered butchers
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HVIII Foreign Policy

  • 2 small expeditions
  • 1- Marg Beaufort and one Ferd against Moors. Timing= wrong drunk
  • Oct 1511 Holy League
  • 1512 campaign help Ferd against Aquitaine, Southern France= FAIL
  • Ferd used uk as distratcion go home lose ship attacked by french
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  • organised by Wolsey
  • Tudor Subsidy- many years
  • W organise ships etc
  • 1513- UK 40,000 soldiers cross channel into Calais
  • Louis XII sent army north
  • UK capture Therouanne
  • Battle of Spurs
  • ALSO victory against Scots, Flodden
  • H- look powerful
  • ally Max made peace with France 1514 UK= isolated

PEACE 1514

H sis Mary marry King Louis XII

H made W Lord Chancellor

Archbishop of York


1518- Papal Legate

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  • all powers of Christendom sign Universal peace
  • 20 signatories - Francis I, Max
  • WHY? UK isolated by France and Max treaty of Noyon 1514
  • Pope Leo X call for peace- fear aggression from France
  • war= costly. Tudor subsidy 1513- no support
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  • H= clothed cloth of gold
  • elaborate tents
  • entertainment, gorgeous buldings, courtiers wearing silk and velvets
  • jousting last two weeks
  • impress Francis with Henr'ys magnificence
  • France and the Empire wants hen support against the other
  • impress each other, power politics
  • nothing achieved less than 2 years eng and france at war again
  • good for Wolsey- another succesfull event, ehanced power, kept him favoured by hen
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  • WHY- Charles V (HRE) marry H daughter Mary (financial compensation), controlled Burgundy effect trade, Cath= Charles' aunty, so took his side
  • Treaty of Bruges signed 1521
  • H war May 1522
  • Charles abandon H, concentrate on Italy
  • French nobleman join UK as an ally
  • Paris= threatened. Francis offer peace talks
  • HRE did not show up as promised in Netherlands/Spain
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  • HRE did not give support as promised from Spain/Netherlands- H not considered important
  • H could not afford campaigns. 1523 sub not given, only raised £322,000 out of £800,000 ANGER- Thomas More, Wolsey no right be there
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The Battle of Pavia 1525

  • Francis against CV in Italy- disastor for French
  • Francis made hostage
  • CV= dominant for many years
  • upset balance of power in Europe
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  • Issues of succession- only had Mary 1520- PUPPET, no son, no heir, no one to carry on dynasty
  • Anne Boelyn- besotted with her, provide a son, love letters 1528, lady in waiting, social climbers, family= powerful faction
  • matter of conscience- married dead bros wife 
  • power- Wolsey= cardinal, credited 1520 treaty of LDN, 1511 backed Holy League initiailly warred with France 1512 and 1522
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  • HVIII= Leviticus, 3rd book old testament- 'he shall be chidless' punished
  • Catherine 1526- Deutronomy 5th book old testament -husbands brother shall take her to him wife'
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Why the divorce failed

  • position of the pope- could not undermine previous pope- would mean dispensation wrong, Italian wars/threat of France/ HRE, Sack of Rome 1525- Pope under power CV Cath nephew, would not darken family name/ ruin his auntie 
  • Wolsey's justification= weak, Bible contradictory, Leviticus, 20 years into marriage matter of conscience unlikely, never questioned previously
  • Catherin- popular, Counsel Support John Fisher, Deutronomy, princess of Catholic Monarchs, won Flodden against Scots 1512, fight protect her daughter and herself 'on shelf'
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