Diagram of Hurricane Formation
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Causes of Hurricanes
- Energy from warm sea, die out over land.
- Heat from the land sucks them quickly towards the Land e.g from Atlantic to North America.
- Different wind speeds= different catagory.
- Winds tend to blow Westerly e.g. West coast of Africa gets non-few hurricanes.
- TYPHOONS- Pacific Ocean (e.g. North China)
- CYCLONES- Indian Ocean (e.g. SE Africa)
- HURRICANES- Atlantic Ocean (e.g. America)
- Cold Ocean currents can prevent hurricanes e.g Peruvian on South American Coast.
- El Nino years- hurricanes are more frequent
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Saffir- Simpson Hurricane Scale
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Hurricane Sandy (Oct 2012) MEDC/ LEDC Impacts
- 113 casualties in USA , 2 in Canda.
- 1 person missing in USA
- $50bn in property damage.
- Impacted US elections.
- Fundraising got $41million in 1 week
- 54 causalties in Haiti, 11 in Cuba, 2 in Bahamas and 1 in Jamaica.
- 21 people missing in Haiti.
- Property damage- $2bn in Cuba, $55,2million in Jamaica & $300million in Bahamas.
- 200,000 left homeless in Haiti.
- UN Sent aid to 500,000 people in Santiage de Cuba, Cuba.
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Prediction & Preparedness, Hurricanes- Sandy 2012
- Info from Satellites and land & sea recording stations.
- Hurricanes follow erratic path do prediction is normally no more than 12-18hours in advance.
- USA set out compulsory evacuation in red 'top priority zones.
- LEDCs have made some progress in predictions and evacuations helping to lower death toll.
- The NY Stock exchange was closed for the 1st time since 9/11. False predictions can be costly to the economy.
- All flights leaving New Jersey were cancelled.
- People managed to 'tweet' services for help when phone lines were down but still got 3G.
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Global Warming and Sandy
- Hurricanes are naturally occuring but may be enhanced by global warming.
- Sea temperatures have risen by 0.6c in Atlantic were the hurricane has formed.
- Sea levels have risen 1 foot around New York and New Jersey over the past 100 years.
- Some scientists believe the blocking high pressure which pushed it in land was caused by global warming.
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Cyclone Nargis, Burma Impacts 2008
- 1.5million people affected.
- 138 dead or missing.
- $4bn worth of economic damage.
- 450,000 homes destroyed.
- 600,000 hectacres of farmland lost along with 60% of farming impliments.
- 75% hospitals or clinics destroyed.
- Diahorrea, dysentery and skin infections spread amongst survivors.
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Cyclone Nargis, Burma Management 2008
- Lack of info- confusion amongst aid & rescue services.
- Government refused to admit scale of disaster & were reluctant to accept foriegn aid.
- Food was left with monks rather than untruseted government agencies.
- Donor countries pleged $50bn but U.S. & French ships were refused ebtry to Bura's ports.
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Hurricane Katrina 2005
- 200,000 never returned to the area.
- Homes that were destroyed and some were never rebuilt.
- Design faults with levees failed as they were built too low and water seeped through them.
- FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) were blamed for poor evacuation error and poor emergency response.
- Managing director of FEMA lost his job.
- President George Bush was crtiticised for not reacting quick enough.
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Hurricane Katrina 2005 (2)
- $125bn total damage, most expensive in U.S. history.
- 68,000 left unemployed.
- 973 deaths.
- 80% of New Oreleans is below sea level, this was flooded.
- Food, shelter and water supplies quickly depleted.
- Charities & volunteers came to help distribute aid.
- Damage to oil refinary caused a price hike in fuel costs.
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