Over 3000 deaths in Haiti and 5 in the USA.
Population density, building construction and hazard planning measures helped determine the outcome.
Deforestation made communities vulnerable for flash floods and mud slides.
Less than 2
2% tree cover has lead to severe soil erosion.
Hit land near New Orleans in 2005. MEDC
Appear of 225km/hour.
Lingered, didn't pass through.
Intensity continued to build.
Low pressure in centre made oceans rise by up to 9m.
New Orleans is built on land below sea level - risk of serious flooding.
Over 1830 people killed in USA.
Cost over $80 billion.
Floods brought poisonous snakes, waterborne diseases and carcasses of livestock.
Health dangers from sewage tinted water.
80% of city went underwater as deep as 6m.
Floodwaters ten times more toxic than is considered safe.
2004, worst for six years.
Population of over 140 million.
Covered 60% of nation.
Death toll of 800 people.
1 million acres of crops destroyed - food shortages and unemployment
No access to clean water so people died as a result of disease.
36 million people left stranded or homeless.
In 2004 there was more rainfall than normal. ☔
Snowmelt from the Himalayas because of global warming.
Deforestation meant more water reached rivers.
1995. Longest river in Europe.
27 killed. 250000 evacuated from homes in the Netherlands.
Drainage basin contains over 40 million people.
There was heavy rain, over 3 times it's average in Switzerland in January.
Saturated soils meant the water couldn't soak away.
Much of the floodplain has been built on with impermeable surfaces which increases amount of rain theat reaches the river.
Intensive farmin compacts the soil and increases overland run off.
Channel straightening speeds up flow of water in river.
Short term aid - evacuation of people and livestock. Sandbags. Furniture moved upstairs. Clearance of underground car parks and subways.
Long term aid - Dykes to increase the volume of water the river Can hold. Cost over 1 billion to build 600 km of dykes.
Limited residential development in floodplain areas.
French heat wave, death toll 30000. Harvests down by 40%
Population turned up air conditioning and so demand for electricity soared.
Portugal declared state of emergency are the worst forest fires for 30 years.
43 degrees in Lisbon in August which is 15 degrees hotter than average.
Some countries that usually export food were forced to import it for the first time in decades.
Wheat productions across the EU was down by about 10%
2003 parts of Southern Ethiopia.
Longest drought anyone had known.
20 million people needed help.
Plantation is an estate over 40 ha.
Grows best at average temperatures of 21 to 28 where annual precipitation is under 2000.
Access to railway lines and main ports.
Tapping. Uses a special knife to cut away about 2mm of bark. This pierces cells and latex oozes out into a collecting cup below.
Using dilute acid the latex is coagulated in a metal pan.
It is then washed and rolled to removed acid and moisture.
Then dried on a rack and smoked to stabilise it.
Lower Ganges Valley in India and Bangladesh
Temperatures of 21.
Monsoon rainfall over over 2000mm
An important dry season to harvest the rice.
Water intensive staple crop.
Takes 5000l of water to produce 1kg of rice.
Intensive subsistence, crop grown on small areas of land using a high input of labour.
Padi fields - lowland rice production.
Kalimantan in Borneo on Indonesia.
Sunny tropical climate all year
Lots of vegetation and animals.
Agriculture - for palm oil for use in cosmetics
Urbanisation - houses and businesses built on newly cleared land
Transport links - built through forests and links to settlements
Industry - logging for timber
Heart of Borneo - WWF working to conserve the rainforest
Almost 1/3 of land is trying to be saved by sustainably managed forests.
1.3 million hectares of land in Borneo cleared each year.
Protects the rainforest
Minimal impact on the environment
Provides income to help preserve protected areas and benefit local populations by reducing the dependence on human activities which could be harmful to natural environments
separated by a deep lagoon
Greater distances from the shore.
Older broader and more continuous than fringing.
Fringe along the coast
Grow along shores protected by barrier reefs.
Best suited to low wave energy conditions
Rise from submerged volcanic foundations
Submerged volcanic islands.
Old and valuable for tourism. Support lots of plants and animals.