Human Growth and Development


Key words

Growth --> increase in size and mass i.e. getting taller

Development --> an increase in skills, abilities and emotions i.e. learning to read and talk

Milestones --> a significant event that has taken place in your life examples include: a child walking for their first time, a student moving up to secondary school and a person leaving home to go to university 

Egocentric --> an infant or child can only think about themselves and their own needs

PIES --> Physical, Intellectual, Emotional and Social 

Norms --> what is a normal thing to do, achieve or develop at a certain age

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Bonding is important so that:

-the child knows they are safe, secure and supported

-helps a child to develop independence 

-helps to develop trust with others

-the child knows they are loved

-the child knows that they can depend on parents and carers 

-can develop strong relationships and a positive self concept

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Life Stages

Infancy- 0-3 years

Childhood- 4-10 years

Adolescence- 11-18 years

Adulthood- 19-65 years

Later Adulthood- 65 years +

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Factors that Affect Growth and Development

Physical - genetic inheritance, diet, physical exercise and illness or disease 

Social and Emotional - gender, family relationships, friendships, education, ethnicity and religion, life experiences, marriage, divorce, death

Economic - income, material possessions

Environmental - housing, pollution, access to health and welfare services 

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Types of Relationship

Family- parents, siblings, cousins etc
-Key features of family relationships- love, support, care, understanding

-Key features of a good friendship- trust, support
-Key features of a poor friendship- disloyalty, untrustworthy, unsupportive

Intimate, Personal and Sexual Relationships
-Key features of good intimate relationships- love, care, warmth
-Key features of poor intimate relationships- abuse, neglect, domestic violence  (main types of abuse- physical, sexual, emotional, domestic violence, neglect) 

Working Relationships
-Key features of a good working relationship- support, respect, loyalty, kindness
-Key features of a poor working relationship- power, disrespect, unsupportiveness

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Self Concept

  • Self concept --> a way a person thinks about their abilities in a variety of facets of life e.g. academically
  • Self esteem --> how we view ourselves
  • Self image --> what other people think about us
  • Positive self concept --> feeling positive, confident, happy with life and believe you are good at something
  • Negative self concept --> opposite of positive self concept^^

Factors that affect self concept:
-emotional maturity
-relationships with others
-sexual orientation
-life experiences 

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Expected Life Events

Changes in relationships:
-living with a partner
-birth of a sibling
-birth of own child

Physical changes:

Changes in life circumstances:
-moving house
-starting school
-starting college
-starting work

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Unexpected Life Events

Changes in relationships:
-death of a relative or friend

Physical changes:

Changes in life circumstances:
-redundancy/ unemployment 

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Sources of Support Available for Those who Need He

  • Partners, family, friends
  • Professional care workers such as nurses, counsellors etc
  • Voluntary organisations such as charities or faith based (church) services
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