Human geography case studies

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India's energy mix

-141st richest country in the world

- population of over 1 billion (17.7% of world population)

-79% energy self sufficient

-3.8% of world energy consumption

-600 million have no access to electricity

- CO2 emissions of 1tonne/person/per year ( global average is 4 tonnes)

-Coal accounts for 34.1% of total consumption

- 259bn tonnes of col reserves

- non commercial resources (fuel wood) account for 40% of consumption

- 9% of energy used for transport

- Signed Kyoto protocol

- 17% hydro potential

- 8 nuclear plants

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Swedens energy mix

- 9th richest country in the world

- 1/1000th of worlds population

-1/400th of world energy consumption

- Coal accounts for 5% of energy mix

- Nuclear accounts for 38% of energy supply

- 10 nuclear reactors

- HEP provides 26% of energy consumption

- River Luleav generates 10% of electricity

- Transport accounts for 25% of energy usage

- Aiming to achieve oil free economy by 2020

- 10% want to phase out nuclear

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Three gorges dam

- Yangzte river is the 3rd largest in the world

- Dam is the largest HEP scheme in the world at 185m high

- Generates 18,2000 MW of power = 300million tonnes of coal

- 20% of China's HEP

- 1045km sq resevoir

- 15 million protected from floods

- 1.5 million Ha of farmland

- $65bn in extra economic activity

- Allows 10,000 vessels to navigate from Shanghai to Chongqing

- Moved 1.9million from 1200 villages

- Cost $88bn

-30,000 Ha of productive farmland flooded

- In Yung Yang 45/81 factories moved

- 47 fish species extinct

- Inshore fish catches fallen by 1million tonnes/yr

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Niger Delta

- Nigeria is the 6th largest oil producer in the world

- Oil represents 90% of exports (40% to USA)

- 4500 miles of pipelines

- Nigeria has been able to pay off all but $5bn of $36bn foreign debt

- 90% unemployment

- 70% living below poverty line

- 7000 oil spills between 1970 and 200

- 5th most polluted place on the planet

- 50000acres of mangrove forest destroyed

- Region recieves only 1% of profits

- MEND rebel group attacks oil industry

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California sustainable energy management

- Most populous state in America of 36.5 million

- Economy as large as the UK

- Energy efficiency programmes saving 12000 MW

- Plans to save further 2800 MW building 5 new power plants

- Per capita energy consumption static between 1975 and 2005

- Energy companies charge $8/tonne of CO2 (+5% each year)

- Renewables account for 30.1% of energy mix

- Plans for 80% cut of GHG emissions by 2050

- 26 million motor vehicles

- Laws forcing auto manufacturers to cut exhaust emissions by 25%

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BedZed

- 82 houses

- 300mm thick insulation -

- Energy for heating 81% less than local average

- 15 low cost houses

- Aims to reduce private car use by 80% in 10 years

- Carbon emissions 56% less than local average

- Photovoltaics supply 20% of electricity

- Water consumption 58% less than local average

- Annual mileage rate 64% of local average

- Office space for 100 workers

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Solar cooker project

- 10,000 solar cookers distrubuter to Darfur

- Zero polluting

- Pots can be heated to 250 degrees fahrenheit

- Consumption of fuelwood reduced 80%

- 82% of rapes occurred during fuel wood collection

- 70% fall in foraging trips

- Project has trained 4500 women

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Russia-Ukraine price dispute

- January 2008 Russia quadrupled gas prices for Ukraine

- Dispute over an unapaid $1.5bn debt of supplied gas

- 80% of European gas supplies routed through Ukrain

China's coal: 

- Largest producer in the world, 2481 million tonnes

- Only exports 16%

Chernobyl:

- 1986 break in coolant pipe

- 250,000 had to be moved

- 3.5 million suffered illness

- Restrictions on food sales from areas up to 3000km away

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Framlingham

- Population increased by 42% since 1981

- Improvements to the A12

- Loss of 'Drill Hall' community building

-  Median house prices risen from £60,000 to £180,000, 10x average local income

- Bibby's seed merchant unable to survive

- Increased flood risk from river ore

- 35 Ha of farmland built on

- 66 people and 81 properties at risk from flooding

- Loss of 2km of hedgerow

- 65 homes built on brownfield sites

- Suffolk Heritage housing association employs 120 people + provies 10 affordable houses/ yr

- Sainsbury's Assisting Village Enterprise

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Tourism in the Lake district

- 15.8 million tourists a year

- Increase of 3 million from 10 years ago

- Tourist double population at peak times

- Tourists spend £600 million a year

- 80% of tourists use cars (less than 5% public transport)

- 25% of tourists said traffic spoiled their visit

- 48% of services directly related to tourism

- Tourism employs 20,000 full time and 35,000 part time

- 15% of homes are second homes

- 20 m of path recovered at Whiteless Pike

- 8x300m scar recovered at Birkside

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Allerdale

- Experiences 29% population loss from 1991 to 2001

- B5289 impassable in winter

- Hill farmers reported 75% fall in income

- In england, 600 locals shops and 500 post offices close in 2010

- Allerdale lost 5 post offices in 2010

- 55% of population over 55

- Commission for Rural communities decreased the tax discount on second homes from 50% to 10% raising £2.8m per year

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Ralegan Siddhi

- 140 km East of Mumbai

- India has experienced 4% population movement to urban areas in last 10 years

- 70% of rural populations live below poverty line

- 50% of families have one meal a day in Ralegan Siddhi

- 60% of households were in debt

- Average family size of 8

- National Guarentee Scheme planned 60million rural households were guarenteed 100 days work.yr on at least $1.35

- 96% did not recieve 100 days

- In Ralegan Siddhi, womens literacy rate has doubled

- Sacrificing goats banned

- Irrigated land increased from 55 acres to 700 acres

- Water table raised from 20m to 6.5m

- Population double since 1971 (male population grown from 596 to 1265)

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Cambrige congestion

- A14 from Cambridge to Huntingdon = most congested 2 lane dual carriageway in England

- 40% more traffic than 20 years ago

- 90% of motorist said traffic was a concern

- £5 million from government for 48 traffic calming schemes in 9 villages

- £372,000 spent in Willingham building 2 zebra crossing on B1050

- Worlds longet guided busway, 16 miles

- 20,000 trips/ day within 10 years

- buses every 9 minutes

- Cost £130 million, £15million over budget

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East Anglia farming & CAP

- Farming agglomeration resulted in loss of 1000s of km's of hedgerow

- Contamination of water supplies from agro chemicals cost £225 million/yr

CAP - Langron Grove Farm

- Eye, East suffolk, 223 Ha

- Lies within NVZ, nitrates limited to 210kg/ Ha/ yr, no nitrates before April 1st

- Yields 10% above national average

- Childrens nursery creates 19jobs and places for 60 children

- Hederows can only be cut once every 3 years, to a minimum heigh of 3 years

- CAP is 55% of EU budget

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East London deprivation

- In 2001m Newham and Tower Hamlets were the UKs two most deprived boroughs

- 43% of adults have no qualifications

- More than 15% recieve unemployment benefits

- in 1971 30% of East London worked in manufacturing, 7.5% in 2001

- Port of London closed in 1981 with loss of 40,000 jobs

- 1980s, £10bn spent on London Docklands development corporation

- 750 acres of derelict land reclaimed

- 25,000 new homes built

- 41% of under 24s remain in gangs

- Average salary is £20,000 a year (2nd lowest in london) - canary wharf = £100,000

- 1 in 4 homes deemed overcrowded

- Streets of Growth helped 300 young people in 2011

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London congestion

- in 2003, 1 million people entering London between 7-10am

- 40,000 vehicles every hour

- Drivers spending 50% of time in traffic

- Average speed of 10mph

- 4,267 early deaths from pollution

- Traffic cost £3million.week

- Motor vehicles contribute to 29% of CO2

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Traffic management, London

- Borris Bike's founded in 2010

- 570 docking stations and 8000 bikes

- £1 per day and £45 for years membership

- 18,500 journeys per day

- Cost £150 million

- Congestion charge 7am-6:30pm on weekdays

- £8 per day

- Congestion levels lowered by 30%

- 35% fewer vehicles on roads

- 24% reduction in journey times

- 20% less vehicles on roads

- Low emission zone charges £100 for vehicles that qualify

- £500 fine if you don't pay in advance

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Waste disposal in London

- 4.4 millions tonnes of municipal household waste a year

- Set to increase to 6.5 million by 2020 with 800,000 population increase

- London recyles only 25% of waste

- 76% of household waste exported to other parts of SE

- Appleford, Oxfordshire recieves 2000 tonnes per day

- 1 in 4 of 28 landfill sites full

- Landfill accounts for 25% of methane production

- Waste collected by 500 vehicles per day

- London must recycle 6x more

- Must produce non biodegradable waste at 75% of 1995 levels

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Water pollution in London

- 39 tonnes of sewage enters thames every year

- Sewage system 150 yrs old, 2mm of water causes it to overflow

- Overflows 50 times per year

- June 2011 'fish genocide' 250,000 tonnes pour into thames over 12km stretch killion 1000s of fish

- £675bn to build 5 new treatment plants (+50% capacity)

- 24 miles, £3.6bn super sewer would be 75m deep and 7 m wide

- Would collect 96% of waste

- 5000 have oppossed the sewer as 22 construction sites will destroy public gardens

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London Olympics

- 24% of those employed were residents of 6 host boroughs

- 39% of those employed were previously unemployed

- 4 million sq feet of new offices

- Westfield shopping centre employs 8000

- 50% of olympic village converted into social housing

- 28% of public agree games will lead to a healthier lifestyle

- 450 residents had to be relocated (£8500 compensation)

- Zero waste games

- 99% of total waste reused

- 62% of operational waste composted/recycled

- 50,000 tonnes of soil cleaned by microorganisms

- 7 micro wind turbines build

- 70% reduction in water demand

- Carbon emissions 80% of before

- 9 million rail cards distributed

- 58% more cyclists

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Nairobi & Kibera

- Nairobi is growing at 4.1% per year

- Kenta has a GDP per capita of less than $800

- 1million people live in Kibera

- 0% of household waste collected

- 95% of households lack adequate sanitation

- HIV rate is estimated at 20% of population

- Only 45% of households have a regular household income

- 50% of households survive on less than a dollar a day

- 40% cannot afford sufficient food on a daily basis

- Average shack 12x12ft and costs £6 per month

- One latrine ('toilet') shared by 50 people

- Changaa is locally brewed alcohol

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Management of Kibera

- Canadian Youth alliance incested $120000 into the construction of a reculing centre

- 80% of household waste in Kibera can be reculced

- Kenya slum upgrading Slum program started in 2002 with budget of $8million

- project rehouses around 750 a year (15 year project)

- in 1977, 6000 plots of land provided (site ahd service) in new Dandora settlement

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Comments

Mr A Gibson

A varied collection of human geography case studies. Each card could be used for revision in its own right but you could also use them as a starting point to develop your own case study.

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