Human Geography

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These are activies that require you to travel from home and stay away for at least one night.

Butler's model of the evolution of tourist areas:

  • Exploration (small)
  • Involvement (locals)
  • Development
  • Consolidation (peak)
  • Stagnation (reached peak)
  • Decline or rejuvenation (refurbishment)

Reasons for the growth of global tourism:

  • Economic - increased paid holidays, overseas access to credit and debit (TNCs), low cost carriers and increased disposable income.
  • Social - increased paid holidays, more educated (aware), improved communication, familiar food and positive reputations.
  • Political - absense of international conflicts and common currency (euro).
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There is a positive correlation between tourism and economic development. Development is measured by human development index (HDI) and this depends on:

  • life expectancy at birth
  • literacy
  • GDP per capita

Places such as Austalia and USA are not top of international tourism, this is because they are very large and also far away from other countries. Instead they have bigger opportunities for domestic tourism (within their own country).

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Tourism Impacts

Multiplier effect:

Expanding economic activity in a region that creates employment and the amount of money in the area, this then attracts further economic development creating more jobs and wealth.

Growth in tourism creates jobs, growth in related jobs leads to income and increased demand for goods and services which leads to growth in the industries. The government can the increase taxes and invest more in infrastructure.


is an area within a developing country especially designed for tourists. These ensure tourists have very little contact with locals, reducing the multiplier effect.


Money tourist pay for a foriegn holiday that does not benefit the destination as it goes elsewhere.

Foriegn workers may send money home, payment to imported goods, foriegn developers take their cut, etc.

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Tourism Impacts


  • Rise in house prices :(
  • Leakage :(
  • Low skilled and seasonal jobs :(
  • Local building materials can be used :)


  • Increased water usage :(
  • Noise and visual pollution :(
  • Damage to coral reefs :(
  • Foreign goods imported :(
  • Protection of wildlife and increased education :)


  • Social problems (begging) :(
  • Enhance quality of life and local employment :)
  • Improved infrastructure :)
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China - Economic Contribution

  • South east Asia
  • Estimated China will become the most visited country by 2020.
  • Sanya, Hainan Islands - is the leading domestic tourist destination. Popular for tropical climate, beaches, golf courses, rainforests, mountains and chain of hotels.
  • Great Wall of China - was built, re-built and maintained, one of the seven wonders of the world and has historic value.

Economic contribution:

  • Tourist industry provides many jobs, 62 million directly and indirectly.
  • Provides a big proportion of China's income.
  • 2.5% of China's GDP
  • Unemployment rate lowered and higher income
  • Contributes 13% more jobs that industry 
  • 70% of tourist revenue comes from international tourism

The booming tourist economy allows the Chinese to spend more, in turn them spending money on tourism stimulates economic growth.

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Iceland - Economic Contribution

  • Between the North Atlantic and Artic oceans
  • You can take part in action holidays (white water rafting, skiing, hiking, etc)
  • Famous for geysers
  • Able to see the northern lights
  • Top 10 places to do whale watching

Economic contribution:

  • Tourism has grown on average 11% a year
  • It brings money to the country and creates jobs, however path erosion, litter pollution and honeypot sites are created.
  • Highly successful eco-tourism industry.
  • Supports over 7,000 jobs.
  • Contributes to other areas through the multiplier effect.
  • Contributes 5% of countries GDP

Interest is growing, very niche market.

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Tenerife - Problems and Opportunities

  • Is in the Canary Islands to the west of Morocco.
  • Most popular Canary Islands owned by Spain.
  • Tourism rapidly grew in 1950s
  • Mount Tiede and the National parks (protected as a heritage site) are some reasons for visiting due to volcanic rock formations (provides environmental protection)


  • 2 in every 5 jobs are in tourism.
  • Contributes 60% of GDP, money put into the economy
  • 5 million visitors a year
  • Two airports connected by a motorway increases accessibility around the islands
  • Before tourism, agriculture and fishing provided low employment


  • Environment has built up due to demand , not planned 'concrete jungle'. Congestion
  • Artificial beaches affect marine ecosystems
  • Present form is unsustainable, concerns with water (decrease in quantity and quality)
  • Dumping of raw sewage
  • Before people were employed in fishing and agriculture (decline in traditional jobs)
  • Only 1/3  of island is now arable farmland
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Jamacia - Opportunities

  • Located in the Caribbean sea
  • 3 national parks (entry fees used to pay for conservation)
  • Coral reefs on the west coast
  • Jamacian culture (Bob Marley)


  • Over 90,000 people employing in tourism
  • $5 billion GDP from direct and indirect tourism
  • Introduced 'Jamacainisation' which includes higher wages and improvement of health care and education.
  • Trips out on boats only take small numbers of people and is powered by men to help protect the environment.
  • They are promoting local B&B's to help the community with development of tourism.
  • 3 national parks and 2 marine parks (popular)
  • New airport, better roads (accessible)
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Burma - Problems

  • Located in south east Asia, boarded by China
  • Attractions include the Golden Rock that is believed to be gravity defying on top of the mounain, Ngapali beach is one of the best beaches in Burma.


  • Human rights have been abused as locals are forced to live on land (population displacement) and perform traditional dances for tourists.
  • Money gained from tourism is spent on military spending (doesn't go back into community)
  • 60% of population live in extreme poverty.
  • 6.1% of employment and 1.3 million jobs in tourism
  • 1 million people have been displaced so the land can be used for tourism development
  • Best time to visit is between November to Feburary. This seasonality causes huge problems for people working within the tourism industry.
  • Development of infrastructure and ruining natural tropical beauty.
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Antarctica - Sustainability

  • An example of eco tourism
  • Located in the south pole
  • 10,000 visitors in 2000, increased to 33,000 in 2007 (worrying for environmentalists)
  • It is a fragile and unique ecosystem.


  • Limited number of tour operators 
  • Limited to 100 people on shore at a time
  • There is an observer on every ship put there by government to monitor activity on board
  • Most sensitive areas are avoided
  • Nothing from shore can be taken
  • All rubbish must be taken with them
  • Ships must have equipment to clear up oil spills if they are responsible
  • Tourists are educated about fragility and taught how to minimise their impact
  • Can't go in breeding season
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Ecuador - Sustainability

  • Located in South America
  • Until recently it was a family run rainforest farm, over the last 8 years it has developed into a sustainable ecotourism destination.
  • Accessed by 4X4 transport on unmade road followed by a 20 minute trek.
  • Maximum of 16 guests, and 4 full time workers.
  • $40 pppn


  • All rubbish must be taken away with the visitors
  • No exchange of clothing
  • Do not pull or touch and branches in the rainforest
  • No signs of affection in public

Buildings are made from local resources

Routes through the rainforest are changed to prevent erosion of footpaths

Half of the annual income goes into local community projects

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  • Dispersed settlements - spread out
  • Nucleated settlements - circle shaped
  • Linear settlements - in a line or row

Rural deprivation is where a certain area doesn't have basic necesities for society.

Counter urbanisation - move from urban to rural

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Wensleydale - Opportunities For Development

Located in north Yorkshire, England. Lies within the national park, Yorkshire Dales.

  • The physical environment offers many opportunities for farming. In the upper Dales there is high rainfall, steep slopes and acidic soil which supports low intensity hill sheep farming. Creates economic growth and keep culture. 
    However activity is in decline and is relying on government burseries.
  • Also in the upper Dales there is potential for wind power on the hills. It is a clean renewable resource. It creates free electricity for the area and is environmentally friendly.
  • The final opportunity is tourism, Wensleydale is famous for its hills, historic villages and traditional markets. You can explore the national park which attracts walkers and sightseers. 20% of the population work in tourism compared to 5% in agriculture. It can increase the number of jobs available and the amount of tourists in the area having a positive impact on the economy

Accessibility is poor making travel difficult and the Upper Dales is serverly damaged due to use of fertilizers and chemicals and overgrazing.

The area is one of the highest second home ownerships. 

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Vasternorrland - Opportunities For Development

Located in northern Sweden.

  • Sparsely populated
  • Winters are long and cold, shallow soils
  • Relies heavily on natural resources particularly forests(sawmills) , rivers (HEP) and minerals


  • Vast land gives the chance for expansion of recreation and international tourism in the wilderness. They can further develop Hong Kust World Heritage Site for further attractions in the area.
  • New railway links between Umea and Nyland will improve travel around the area, making the area more accessible which will inturn attract more people to the area.

Geographical (communication), social, economic, environmental (climate...), demographic (population density)  and political (policies) are reasons for lack of rural development

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Tamil Nadu - Challenges

Located in south east India.


  • Cheaply built houses
  • High dependancy ratio (lots of children)
  • Caste system (people born into social groups) that can affect chances of getting a job
  • Brain drain (however many can't read and write)
  • Poor health care (unbalanced diet as can't afford meat)


  • Hard to find access to affordable loans
  • Less than $1.2 a day
  • 500 million live in poverty
  • Can't afford meat


  • Suffer from droughts which reduce the monsoons that many farmers rely on
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Tamil Nadu - Solutions


  • Education programmes
  • Helping people become entrepeneurs
  • Water pipes have been installed
  • Women self help groups, discuss problems within the community
  • Mobile hospital unti for those unable to travel and that can't afford it
  • Providing work space and materials for people to work (not relying on farming)
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Ralegan Siddhi - Problems

East of Mumbai

  • Drought prone area
  • Age selective migration (young people)
  • poor education and transport links
  • Caste system (untouchables can't use village well)
  • Water bred diseases
  • Misuse of alcohol leading to vandalism and wife beating


  • Restorement of village temple to hold meeints about issues of the village.
  • Ban sale and consumption of alcohol
  • Removal of caste system
  • Education programmes and building of secondary school
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Masif Central - Problems With Rural Change

South of the centre of France

Factors that led to decline in the are include:

  • Isolation
  • Lack of basic facilities
  • Population decline
  • Roads cut off
  • Main income destroyed (wine region and bacteria wiped out the wine crops)

Economic problems with growth: Local businesses shut as larger businesses have better prices, costs lots to manage problems, newer jobs take away tradition

Economic problems with decline: less people visit, people loss their jobs, derelict buildings, house prices falling.

Social problems with growth: Locals may not like the changes, loss of culture and tradition, farmers get machinery so people get let off, increased traffic and noise pollution.

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Masif Central - Problems With Rural Change

Social problems with decline: No atmosphere in school (one year 16 children, next reduced to 8), no exclusivity - everyone knows your business, aged community (greying population)


  • Building of a motorway with no toll charge and decreases travel time by half
  • Different housing types (more people attractive due to more variety)
  • Tower in the village can be seen from the motorway so people come and visit
  • Grants available for people to invest in the area
  • Building of an airport that links to 18 French and European countries
  • Bakery van
  • School bus 
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The Norfolk Broads - Conflicts and Management

  • Located in Norfolk and is a national park

Socio-economic conflicts:

  • Bars and pubs attract young tourists (hoolaganism) disrupts locals
  • A reliance on tourism (£3.5 billion provided by tourism to east England economy)
  • Prices are artificially inflated
  • Tourism jobs are low skilled a poorly paid (attracts migrant workers)
  • Pressure on local roads
  • Increased second home ownership

Environmental conflicts:

  • Boat traffic disrupting wildlife
  • Imissions from boats produce algae that absorbs oxygen making areas inhabitable
  • Turbulence from boats erodes sides of the river
  • High levels of phosphorus in water due to sewage
  • Trampling on habitats
  • Decline in birds
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The Norfolk Broads - Conflicts and Management


  • The Broads Plan 2011 - planning for the long term to ensure sustainability.
  • Cross Compliance Principle (CAP) - limited cattle, limits fertilzers and reduce soil erosion from over grazing
  • Introduction of water flees reducing water algae (increasing number of fish that feed on flees)
  • Norfolk Broads Authority introducing speed limits on boats (10mph) to reduce erosion of river beds
  • Speed limits 20mph to lower emissions and congestion
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East Anglia - Traffic and Second Homes

Located in east Anglia in east England

Issues with traffic:

  • A47 links two large cities (Nowich and Ipswich) which is a single carrigeway, people over take and cause traffic collisions. 8 deaths in 10 weeks
  • 50% of traffic using it are lorries
  • Air and noise pollution
  • Seperates villages as some places have no bypasses in the west


  • £6 million scheme to build a bypass
  • Campaigns to spread awareness
  • Police observation (speed cameras and speed limits)
  • Increased petrol prices, encourages people to use public transport
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East Anglia - Traffic and Second Homes

Issues with second homes:

  • Huge demand in the area has inflated house prices
  • Typical price for a 2 bedroom house is between £300,000-400,000
  • Holiday home empty during the week
  • Local services struggle and then close


  • Second home owners pay higher taxes, money then being put back into the community
  • Villagers in Lavenham go against plans to convert offices into second homes
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East Anglia - Farming and It's Impacts/Sustainabil

Layton Grove Farm

  • Grows crops such as winter barley and winter wheat
  • Yield is 10-20% about national average


  • Set Aside- farmers can't use 8% of their land, for natural growth. CAP pay farmers £175 per hectare for untouched land
  • Limits on pesticides
  • Can't cut hedgerow between March and July to protect nesting birds
  • ES scheme - rewards farmers for consevation, leabing a 6m strip around fields and cut hedges every 3 years.
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Amathole District - Sustainability of Farming

Located in south Africa

  • Subsistant farming - beneficial for locals and is affordable
  • Essential oils from plants can be used for medicinal purposes (provides new source of income)
  • Fenced and barbed wire prevents theft and trampling of crops
  • Sharing of tools between farmers
  • Drought resistant food crops
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  • Nuclear - provides huge amounts of energy without producing greenhouse gases however is linked with health issues as it is radioactive
  • Fossil fuels - produces large amounts of energy however produces greenhouse energy
  • Solar - it meets energy demands without pollution but doesn't produce a lot of energy
  • Wind - there is no waste however it's appearance is unsightly
  • Tidal - is reliable and no waste is produced however only produced for 10 hours
  • Wave - ther is no waste however must withstand weather
  • HEP - is reliable but is very expensive to build
  • Geo-thermal - no pollution but it is hard to build the power stations
  • Biomass - uses waste
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Reasons for Variations in Energy Supply


  • Fossil fuels are found in limited areas
  • HEP requires high precipitation, steep sided valleys and impermeable rock
  • Large power stations require flat land
  • Solar requires strong sunlight for a lot of the year
  • Wind power requires high average speed and tidal requires very large tidal range


  • Renewables and nuclear are expensive
  • Onshore deposits are cheaper than onshore
  • Poor countries rely on biomass
  • Energy increaes as extraction  costs increase


  • Need permission for nuclear development
  • Wars increase prices
  • Public opinion
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Reasons For Change in Demand Over Time

Technology development - means resources are now more available and easier to extract Increasing national wealth - more people to cater for means more energy needed so a variety of resources Changes in demand - new inventions may need more things Changes in price - what people can afford will be in the most demand so they want to extract it cheaply Environmental/public opinion - whether things are better for the environment.

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Sweden's Energy Mix

Located in northern Europe.

  • One of the most developed countries
  • In 2006 GDP was 8th out of 184 countries
  • Nothing Outshines Hard Core Geography
  • Nuclear 38%
  • Oil
  • HEP 26%
  • Coal
  • Gas 2%
  • Has limited resource base, many powerful rivers
  • 10 nuclear reactors as opinion on it is more positive (10% of population is against)
  • Some wild rivers protected by law
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India's Energy Mix

India is located south Asia

  • Population over 1 billion
  • 136th out of 184 in GDP
  • 70% of areas dependant on agriculture
  • We Could Have Gone Home Now
  • Wood (combustable renewables) 37.4%
  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • HEP 
  • Nuclear 0.8%
  • 3rd largest coal producer (as poor it can't use it itself)
  • 1/4 of rural covered in forest, uses wood and dung (unsustainable deforestation)
  • 2 out of 3 villages have electricity
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Niger Delta - Problems With Exploitation

Nigeria in west Africa.

  • 6th largest exploiter of oil
  • TNCs dominate oil production
  • Shell make up 50%  of production
  • Operate 159 oil fields
  • Niger delta is a diverse ecosystem, 60% of fish spawn there and 3rd largest mangrove forests
  • 23 million people live in the delta (Ogoni are indigenous to delta)


  • 6,817 oil spills a year on average 4 a day
  • Kills fish
  • Gas flares burn 24/7, produce noise and CO2 pollution
  • Between 1986 and 2003 50,000 acres of mangroves have been destroyed
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Niger Delta - Problems With Exploitation


  • Houses are covered in smog due to flares
  • Air pollution leads to breathing problems
  • Locals are forced to give up fishing to the polluted lakes 
  • Shell have destroyed local buildings to lay pipes and extract oil
  • Chemical pipelines run over ground
  • 90 villages have been affected


  • Farming and fishing affected
  • Increase in the black market (selling oil illegally)
  • Recieves little as 1% of the revenue
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Three Gorges Dam - Opportunities

Located in China which is within east Asia

  • Yangtze is China's longest river and 3rd in the world
  • Source in central China and mouth near Shanghai
  • Largest HEP dam opened in 2006

Social Problems - 

  • 300km2 of farmland flooded
  • Just under 2 million people were displaced
  • 1200 villages disapeared
  • Little compensation
  • Archeology sites lost

Environmental - 

  • Poisoned water from sewage and landfill leaks
  • Resevoir to slow to remove pollutants
  • Oxygen reduced due to algal bloom
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Three Gorges Dam - Opportunities

  • River dolphin now extinct and 47 fish species at risk
  • Reduced deposition and increased erosion further down river
  • Increased risk of earthquakes due to the weight of the dam
  • Fishing and irrigation below the dam at risk

Economic - 

  • Natural fertilizer lost lower down the river as floods stopped, farmers need to pay for fertilizer
  • Permanent loss of coal and metal ore from flooding


Economic - 

  • 10% of electricity growing each year
  • Created millions of jobs
  • Creates 20% of China's electricity
  • Transport links allowing large ships down the river
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Three Gorges Dam - Opportunities

Community Development - 

  • Reduced risk of flooding in the valley
  • 15 million people are protected 
  • Flooding has caused deaths now doesn't

Sustainability - 

  • HEP is clean and renewable
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Germany - Sustainability

Located in western Europe

  • 5th largest consumer of energy in the world and has worlds largest supply of renewables
  • In 2007 they had 1800 wind turbines 
  • Renewables employ 64000 people
  • Produce 30% of worlds wind energy
  • Solar energy is 57% of world energy
  • They use renewables for security of energy, fear of nuclear power and climate change
  • By 2020 50% of Germany's energy will be produced by solar, wind and biomass.
  • Galmsbull built 350 turbines and several biogas stations
  • Money from renewables goes back into the community
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California - Sustainability

Located on the west coast of north America.

  • Has a population of 36.5 million
  • Richest US state
  • Have 26 million vehicles which produce 40million tonnes of CO2 a year

Californias Green Agenda:

  • Reduce energy consumption
  • Increase sufficient use of energy
  • Expand renewable use of energy
  • Cut green house gas emissions by 25%

They have 1400 wind turbines

All year sunshine they plan to increase number of solar panels and all new houses are planned on having solar power on them.

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