Human Geog- Changing Urban Environments

HideShow resource information

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation

During the 19th century, London's port was one of the busiest in the world, but by the end of the 1950s it was in signficant decline with many of the docks derelict and abandoned. In response to the resulting social, economic and environmental problems the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was set up in 1981.

Why did the London Docks go into decline?

1. An increase in ship size meant they found it difficult to come down the river as far as the Isle of Dogs where the river wasn't as deep. (the position of the docks moved further downstream to Tilbury);

 2. Containerisation meant few dockers were needed with large cranes used to lift containers from ships;

3. The decline of portside industries and manufacturing

1 of 7

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation

What were the problems in 1981 in the Isle of Dogs?

* population had declined

* employment was in decline (loss of jobs from decline of docklands

* access to the rest of London was poor with narrow roads which were heavily congested, and a lack of public transport (a single bus route and no rail or underground service)

* 95%+ of housing was rented and including high density terraced houses and large estates dominated by high rise blocks

* Shopping faciliities were limited

* Lack of open space and recreation facilities

2 of 7

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation

Changes to the area between 1981 - 1998

Environmental Regeneration

- network of pedestrian and cycle routes with access to the river and dock edge through waterside walkways

- creation of pedestrian bridges

- creation of new open spaces 

- planting of 200,000 trees;

- the area has now received many awards for architecture, conservation and landscaping

3 of 7

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation

Economic Regeneration

- unemployment had fallen from 14% to 7.4 with a doubling in employment

-opening of the Docklands Light Railway in 1987 - now carrying 35,000 passengers a week;

- 2,700 businesses trading

- major new roads including link to the M11

- Building of the City Airport in the former Royal Docks (500,000+ passengers a year)

4 of 7

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation

Social Changes

- £10 million spent on improvement council and housing association homes

- a total of 22,000 new homes built

- gentrification of old warehouses to new homes

- Large new shopping centre at Canary Wharf with over 30 shops

- £100 million spent on health, education, job training etc.

5 of 7

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation

How successful was the London Docklands Redevelopment?


- more trade for local shopkeers

- cheaper rents here for large companies yet still the benefit of only being 10 minutes from central London

- a wide range of economic, environmental and social benefits (see above) - including 22,000 news housing units and 1000s of new jobs.

- greatly improved accessibility in and out of docklands

- addressed the once failing land, housing and commercial property markets in the area.

6 of 7

LDDC- London Docklands Development Cooperation


- there were criticisms that despite the improvements many of these didn't benefit the original 'eastenders' - click on the photo opposite to see some of the 'anti-LDDC' graffitti

- many locals were unable to afford the high costs of the new expensive houses / flats (still a lack of low-cost housing in the area)

- despite an increase in jobs with new businesses coming in, most required skills that the old dockers did not have;

- reduction in community spirit that the old Docklands had

7 of 7


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Urban environments resources »