Human Evolution

human evolution

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Is the condition of walking on 2 feet.

The benefits of bipedalism include:

  • Species is able to stand upright, which generally improve their ability to see far and wide. Therefore they are able to detect danger from afar.
  • They are also able to view surroundings with ease which improves their chances of locatign food. They are also able to transport the found food using thei forelimbs. This offers a great survival opportunity.
  • Forelimbs (arms) are free to transport food or for other animals such as birds, they use the forelimbs to fly. Primates se it for digging and man can use the forelimbs to se tool properly.
  • Due to the pright position, species that are bipedal have better diets. This is becasue they have a wider range of fod to chose from. This leads to their offspring being healhier and also allows them to live longer and grow fully.

Negatives cold include back problems and slow speed. This is bacause the weight from the uper body is placed on the lower body, therefore affecting its speed.

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Homo Habilis and H.Rudolfensis


  • Small cranium, small teeth and jaw.



  • Large Cranium, Large teeth and jaw.
  • Tools used
    • Oldawan tool, found 2.6 million years ago. Some of the Oldawan flakes had been sed to work wood, some to cut meat and cut reeds. They also used it to butcher animals.
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Homo Erectus

  • bony, brow ridges.
  • first pre-human to leave Africa.
  • And also to se fire.



  • Archeulean (flatted hand axe). Found 1.5 million years ago.


  • Provided Warmth. illumination at night. Kept dangerous animals away. Hard wooden spear points. Animal traps.
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Homo Neanderthalensis


  • High steep forehead.
  • Forward Jutting chin.


  • Low sloping forehead.
  • Brow ridge.
  • Receding Chin.
  • Occipital bun.

Tool used:

  • Mousteria  tools were shaped from the flakes themselves.

-They buried their dead which suggested that they had developed some sort of belief of after life after death.

-Suggested because fuly intacted skeleton were found and bones from game animals.

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Homo Sapiens

  • Large Cranium-this might be because the brain had developed more (size of the brain grew larger).
  • Small teeth and jaw- suggest that since the introdction of tools, large teeth and jaw were not neccessary in breaking dwon the food.
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A. Boisei

  • Small cranium.
  • Large cheek bone.
  • Sagittal crest.


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A. africanus

  • Small cranium.
  • Forwards jutting face.


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Biological Evolution vs Cultural Evolution

What is biological evolution?

Biological evolution is the evolution of a species over generations. it is the genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations.

What is cultural evolution?

Cultural evolution refers to the presumption that social inequalities have development in population in response to either climate change or population growth. Was considered directional- as the population transforms,  their culture becomes more complex.

  • Cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution because it can occur in one generation (occur within a generation) while biological evolution occurs from one generation to the next.
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