- Created by: tami
- Created on: 26-03-21 17:47
Measuring Human Development
Measures used traditionally:
GDP- total outputs of goods of a country including foreign businesses located there. HIGH= development is high. - hard to measure all earnings e.g informal sector- subsitence farming, GDP per capita masks inequalities due to very rich hiding very poor.
Gross National Income- GNI is a measure of income, but unlike GDP it uses income recieved from abroad.
GNI= GDP + Income from abroad.
BUT they only look at economic factors
Measures used today:
Happy Planet Index- measures happiness of the planet. Uses: Experienced well-being (1-10 on well-being scale), Life expectancy, Ecological Footprint (resource consumption). Highest= Costa Rica. They have no army so spend money on health & education. Good at environemntal protection + only measure to use environmental sustainability. - 'happiness' is subjective. Only life expectancy is reliable.
Human Development Index- Uses: Life expectancy (indicator of health and well-being), Education, Economic growth.+ uses statistical data which is reliable & can be collected over time. - It's an average measure which hides inequalities
The law of Islam. One of strictest systems ranging from public to private beliefs and behaviours e.g Women cannot drive a car, men can marry up to 4 women, theft is punishable by amputation of right arm. Rich countries e.g UAE and Saudi Arabia adopt this model
BOLIVIA UNDER EVA MORALES
An indigenous native indian president. He exploits natural resources and distrubutes the wealth among the population. 500,000 have escaped poverty. Socialist view, but shares are unequal. Limited views on education, freedom of speech etc..
Influences on perception of developmet:
Improvements should focus on: health, human rights, life expectancy and environmental quality.
Hans Roslings view:
Since the 1980s improvements in family size, health and life expectancy have occurred. Poorer countries have made less progress. For economic development to occur improvements in environmental quality (air and water), human rights and health and life expectancy have to occur before.
Also known as Modernisation Theory (Links to Rostows modernisation theory)
economic growth is best way of achieving these aims. But this involves exploitation of resources . So this is why environmental quality not always involved.
Literare and skilled population is precious human capital. It encourages better jobs and higher wages, understanding oh hygiene and controlling family size.
Also helps people realise their human rights.
Negative indicator of education: Illitaracy
Some countries are openly discrimante to females gaining an education. Due to:
Parents not getting nvolved, underfunded schools, low teacher expectations, having to pay for own university, unpleasant home conditions (noisy), mental/ physical disability.
Malala became an education activist after being shot by Taliban. Now trying to make people aware of inequalities.
UNESCO- aims to ensure everyone has access to education. It has raised levels of literacy around the world BUT in Africa and South Asia female literacy very low
Variations in Health and Life Expectancy
Between HICs and LICs
Developed nations have high life xpectancy and developed low e.g Africa - Sierre Leone (46)
Gender Differences- women generally higher, particularly HIC due to lifestyle choices- exercise, obesity, smoking drinking. BUT LIC some women lower due to high levels HIV/ maternal mortality.
measured through: life expectancy, no. doctors per 100,000 and percentage of population with regular access to drugs.
So LIC- less access to healthcare e.g drugs/ doctors, safe water supplies, proper sanitation and food means increases maternal/infant mortality, ill health and death.
HIC- Differences in access to healthcare. Some countries FREE e.g NHS so easy access other countries private healthcare e.g USA so expensive
Variations within Countries
Variations within countries:
Due to: ethnicity, poverty, lifestyle & healthcare
United Kingdom- LIFE EXPECTANCY
Female average is 80 years old. 20th century only 50 years old.
Differences by county= 15 years between men in Richmond Upon Thames and parts of Manchester. Biggest killer is heart disease and cancer.
Differences in socio-economic groups= very large differences due to housing conditions, voews about health and diet. Professional women- 85 years old. Unskilled women- 78 years old
Differences in ethnic groups= differences may be due to inherited genes. Chinese- highest. Black African women live longer than Black Carribean women.
Aboriginal, Australia- LIFE EXPECTANCY
Australia has one of highest life expectancies.
Aboriginal men 10 years lower than non-indigenous. Due to quality of life being so poor (second worst globally). Factors: poor housing, low education, high unemployment, ethnic discrimination (hidden), heavy smoing. They lack transport for healthcare
Role of Government for Eco/Soc Development
Different types of govs:
Left wing (socialist) vs Right wing (capitalist)
Democratic (regularly elected) vs Authoritarian/ Totalitarian (dictorial)
Depending on the type of progress different levels of SOCIAL PROGRESS
(meeting basic human needs, improving well-being and creating opportunities which can be accelerated through:
Governemnt intervention e.g NHS,
Social Enterprice e.g businesses trading for social/ environmental purposes or
Social Activism e.g empowerment of women)
North Korea= Totalitarian. Priotity is miltary not heath (small budget)
Welfare state= priority is well-being e.g Sweden. High levels of social spending
FRANCE- high education spending, high pensions, healthcare state-funded, gov spends 56% GDP
SAUDI ARABIA- low education spending (teachers poorly trained with religious teachings), low pensions, Autocratic power (leader has absolute power).
IGOs Views on Development
IGOs want global development. Focused on economic development. They see it has the base for development. So relying on free-trade, privatisation & deregulation of capital markets.
Promoting ecnomic development:
WORLD BANK- provide development loans for LICs in return for SAPs . They have to run free markets. Therefore increasing industrialisation, trade and exports.
IMF- promotes economic reform allowing developing nations to enter more easily. Also give temporary loans but do not invest in schemes. In return for SAPs.
WTO- regulates global trade by promoting free trade and trade liberalisation. It has reduced poverty as economic evelopment but encouraged environmental degradation.
Recent programmes improving social:
UNESCO- contributes to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science and culture and human rights.
OECD- promotes policies that improve ecnomic and social well-being. Govs work together to seek solutions.
Hinder because: LICs become in debt because banks lent money to developing countries when OPEC raised oil prices, SAPs are controversial as less spending on healthcare etc
UNs Millenium Development Goals
Millenium Development Goals:
Set of targets agreed in 2000 as an urgency to reduce poverty and combat issues with human development. 189 heads of state signed.
8 goals e.g reduction in extreme poverty, reduced deaths in children under 5.
Death of children reduced by half- 12 billion to 6 billion
More people access to piped drinking water.
BUT poorest left behind because of sex, gender, disability, ethnicity, geographical location e.g Sub-saharan Africa.
Sustainable Development Goals:
17 further goals set in 2010 to end poverty, fight inequality and climate change. They had a broader agenda. They address root causes of poverty thorugh sustainable development, democratic governance and disaster resilience.
Importance of Human Rights- International Law
Human rights = fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitles to simply because they are human. Many countries encourage economic development over human development
Universal Decliration of Human Rights:
30 universal rights from freedom of speech to justice.
+ significant factor influencing foeign policies & international relationships
- A declaration not a treaty (not legally binding). A weakness as can't enforce it.
The European Convention on Human Rights: (ECHR)
A number of articles on human rights. It has developed awareness of human rights in Europe in response to WW2 and post war spread of communism.
Human Rights Act, UK- 1998: incorporates the ECHR into the UK law. Breaching it leads to court. but challenged UK sovereignty if sent straight to European courts(full power).
Geneva Convention: 4 treaties made during armed conflict, to protect civilians, wounded and prisoners of war. + it has stopped harm to people - but terrorists undistinguishable
Aleppo, Syria. bombings of hospitals and 'white helmets' who help search and rescue arrested and killed. Under Geneva convention they should be protected.
Differences between countries
Egalitarian= believing all people are equal
Human rights vs Economic development
But human rights views vary between govs so conflcit
Totalitarian/ authoritarian state, pro-economic development as high military spending e.g nuclear weaponisolated: no internet access, no freedom of speech or movement.
Violations of human rights e.g torture, forced abortions, executions
Capitalism/ Democratic, pro-economic development, elections, powerful high-tech TNCS e.g Hyundai, good education and healthcare
Authoritarian vs Democratic
Poor human rights- supression of internet 'Great Firewall of China', Unfair trials, Torture due to religious beliefs & human rights activists, Trade unions are illegal, Death penalty (46 crimes = end in this)
Focus on economic development.
But still human rights issues: violence against religious minorities, sexual abuse against women and children and discrimination against tribal communiites.
New government wants freedom of speech
India is performing worse economically may be due to focus on human rights not economy. Still 6th in the world. China is 2nd
Sweatshops: Economic benefits vs human rights. Theyre workplaces with poor working conditions and long hours
+ better paid jobs in relation, freedom of choice to work there, unemployment would be high without, provide cheap production costs for TNCs, girls living near less likely to get pregnant
- very unsafe conditions, 1000 killed in collapse of Bangladesh sweatshop, 2013
Political corruption= the misuse of power for outside gains of a person in power e.g election rigging, diverting foreign aid
How it threatens human rights:
- lack of freedcom of speech
- health and education services suffer
- judicial system is unsafe
Meaure using Index of Corruption- number voters, incomes people in power, % spent on welfare. But bad measure as govs lie to be seen in a better light
Most corrupt= North Korea
Myanmar= political violence and repression of democratic opposition. Link between leaders and organised crime e.g drugs and human trafficking. 2015 first fair election. Human rights activist won, however parliament against as she has a British foreign husband.
Zimbabwe= prosperous during British rule- mining, agriculture..President Mugabe came into rule in 1980s and had corruption and denial of human rights. Gave best land to people he knew. Country became bakrupt. However in 2017 he was forced out of presidency.
Ethnicity and Human Rights
Post colonial countries have tense environments between ethnic groups as little knowledge to cope and because colonies cut across borders of ethnic groups e.g Middle east.
e.g RWANDA GENOCIDE
Germans believed all Native people the same so created coundaries
BUT 3 ethnic groups
Hutu tried to eliminate the other 2 causing massacre
Today little stability
Gender and Human Rights
Gender Inequality Index- measure quanitfying loss of achievement in reproductive health, empowerment and labour market participation.
Women- pay gaps, women own less land, less girls in education, more women with STDs and 1 in 3 subect to violence
Because of: Religious beliefs e.g Sharia Law and lower social vaue
Important for development because: promotes economic growth more in work, reduces population growth, better governance, better health
Before 1979- made progress e.g right to vote
But 1990s TALIBAN rule- version of Sharia Law
women banned from going to school, working, leaving the house
2001 USA military removed Taliban but now Taliban is gaining power again as troops have left
Health and Education and Human Rights
Correlation between health&education and human rights
Indigenous North and South America
Givs do not invest in social services so limited access to healthcare and education.
Under threat from mining loggings etc. Being driven away & more likely tocommit suicide.
Can't respond as don't have knowledge or power to
Up to ww2 white only immigration
now one of the best human rights records
BUt need improvements in including indigenous community
Geopolitical intervention- the exercise of a countrys power in order to influenc events outside its borders
Motives= development aid, protecting human rights, accessing resources, encouraging health and education
Types of intervention:
Humanitarian aid- development aid, both BILATERAl (one on one( and MULTILATERAL (given to organisations to distrubute)
Economic support- Trade helping LICs (however some terms don't e.g embargoes- restrictions on specific commodities) Example of successful one is seting up of ASEAN and INVESTMENt
Military power- training armed forces, sending troops to help with terrorist (USA 2001- Taliban) to help human rights
e.g YEMEN PROTEST, 2011. people protested about president on streets. Saudi Arabia and UK intervened with military aid but NGOs disagreed as causing more harm. Thousans killed inc children by air strikes and land mines. NOT SUCCESSFUL
Validity of intervention:
conflicted views as different organisations have different aims. Real readon should be for human rights. Pointless if nothing achieved.
National soveriegnty- each nation has the right to govern itself without interference
BUT governemnts abusing human rights (torture, imprisonment etc..) show this idea has limitations
Responsibility 2 Protect (R2P)- each state has responsibility to protect its population from war crimes, ethnic cleansing, genocide etc...
International intervention Players:
IGOs= World Bank, EU, WTO, UN
NGOs= (charities concerned with humand rights & human development aid)
Oxfam- founded UK to deal with hunger during ww2. now assists conflict, improves health&poverty
Human rights watch- founded to minotor Soviet Union. Now looks for violations UDHR
Amnesty International- founded UK ensure Universal Decliration Human Rights occurs and education, training so aware of human rights
Multilateral aid= aid (usually financial) is given to international aid organisations e.g Oxfam which distrubtes it. Donators choose cause.
Bilateral aid= aid given to the government of another country. One-to-one basis. Donators no infleunce
Countries getting most- Israel, Egypt, Afghanistan
involves: emergency aid, installing village wells, financial gifts to global appeals
e.g Haiti, 2010. earthquake 7 magnitude. 230,000 killed, 1.7 million homeless.
Global appeals raised £12 billion. But only half recieved.
Aid unequally distrubuted and weak government. Poor development aid.
Fight in disease= aid targeting healthcare e.g eradication of smallpox.
MALARIA- worlds number one killer. Fought through- draining swamps, encouraging medicine for those at risk & mosquito nets. Improved mortality rate.
Improved education helps fight disease as basic hygiene understood.
Development Aid Continued
Poverty and Human Rights= greatly reduced due to MDGs but slow due to unchanging mindsets. Development aid has helped gender equality
Negative impacts development aid:
- encourages dependency rather than development
- political corrption as aid goes into pockets of leaders
- aid given in grants seems inappropriate and skills and training better
NGOs e.g Oxfam - multilateral aid
Economic Aid Impacts
Economic aid- in the form of trade and investment (helping education, healthcare, technical know how)
FDI and presence of TNCs
Negative impacts on environment and human rights:
e.g NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA
Oil discovered 40 years ago. Shell main exploiter BUT over 70% live in poverty
Environment= oil spills pollute groundwater, mangroves damaged, impacton environment, health problems from burning oil- pollution of air
Minorities= local people experienced reduced fishing industry and farming. Services remain underfunded, no benefits of oil extraction.
Human Rights= violent protests & kidnapping of foreign oil company workers
LAND GRABBING, KENYA
acquisition of large areas of land in developing countries. Population has little access to any land so can;t grow food to feed families. TNCs growing biofuels cause hunger
Reasons for: acquisition of resources, protect civilians, fight terrorism, natural disasters
MORAL HIGH GROUND
Russia in Ukraine- 2013
Putin wanted control over Crimea due to resources and territory and stop Ukraine being part of NATO- threat. Believed they had moral highground over land.
troops sent to eastern ukraine, challenge to their sovereignty.
MILITARY AID- often given to maintain relationships
UK to Saudi Arabia
allies and agreement to equip them withfighter planes in return for them investing £60 billion. Largest trading partner in Middle east.
But Saudia Arabia poor human rights e.g womens rights, UK don't want to support.
FIGHTING WAR ON TERROR. IS and Jihad beliefs- modern tech to brainwash young
Concerns about IS- middle east stability, abuse of human rights & oil reserve safeguarding.
Countries monitor potential terrorists but also RENDITION (send terrorists abroad where less legal issues with interrogation/ torture). USA have used after Twin Tower attacks even though signed UN Declaration on Human Rights
Human Development (HARD DATA- statistical)
raised life expectacy
more doctors per 100,000
increase in GDP per capita
Human Rights (SOFT DATA-qualitative)
improved freedom of speech
gender equality Index
respect for minorities e.g North and South america, australia
Democracy as a measure- (Invasion of Iraq 2003) brings freedom of expression and social and political syability, womens rights. e.g India (introduced democracy) vs China (socialist & authoritarian. economic growth over human. major human rights failure e.g internet censorship, torture)
Relationship between aid and development
1) outputs do not match inputs. due to inappropriate aid
2) Top down approach 'wealth trickling down' did not benefit poor
3) debate over multilateral and bilateral aid. which is more beneficial
4) no matter what aid is given it encourgaes dependency
SUCESSFUL emergency aid e.g Ebola Outbreak, 2014. Mainly in african countries. 6 months after 1st case an emergency response mission set up. what it included: informing about disease, locating those with disease, equipping treatment centres, accessing food supplies. Reasons for less succes: fear of reporting family member, denial of populations. Eradicated by 2016.
FAILURE e.g Haiti, 2010. global efforts said £12 billion aid only half given & poorly allocated.
Economic Inequalities & Role of Superpowers
Top down (money given to governments that do large scale projects)- trickle down. Increases inequalities
Bottoms up (money given to charities doing small scale projects)- encourages gap to reduce
Gini-Coefficient (measures inequalities in pay) 0= perfect equality 100= perfect inequality
BUT informal sector e.g subsitence farming hard to measure
Superpower Objectives of development aid:
need global sphere of influence, strategic locations, future supplies secure, alliances
Aid used to achieve as 'strings attached' e.g USA
Military intervention= using military to exert force and change a situation
non-military intervention- bringing development e.g using diplomacy
direct military- sending troops and equipement
indirect- providing military assistance without troops
non-intervention- not getting involved
Options- turn a blind eye (unfavourable), limited military intervention (only short term) and extended intervention (long term and answer to crises)
Afghanistan- US after 9/11 bombings to stop Taliban. 150,000 killed
Ukraine- Russia invaded Crimea due to ethnic minorities annexed Crimea and took Ukrainian soveriegnty. 2500 killed
Libya- civil war. UN intervention killed gaddafi, 100,000 killed.
--- Loss of sovereignty, human rights (civilians killed). Overall lack of successes. too short-term
non-military interventions- peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping uses no force to defend. intra-state conflicts and civil wars
e.g Ivory Coast -post colonial. civil war after 1999 due to religious differences - muslims and chirstians. UN entered to bring peace in 2011 to protect civilians, brng disarmerment and monitor human rights. Christian president arrested over crimes against humanity.
Non-military intervention more successful than military intervention
not favourable as spreads dangers e.g IS.