Rio de Janeiro case study

  • Created by: keira881
  • Created on: 31-03-19 14:27

General Information

  • Located in South- East Brazil, around Guanabara bay 
  • Importance: Major port, host for 2016 olympics, important international transport hub and a UNESCO world heritage site. 
  • It has grown mainly because of migration, with people attracted to Rio's employment
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Social challenges

  •  Education-Only half of all children continue education beyond 14 as:
    • Shortage of schools and teachers
    • A lack of money and a need for teens to work to support their family 
  • Water supply-12% of Rio's population had no running water:
    • Alot is lost through leaks and illegal access
    • Droughts make water expensive 
  • Energy-Frequent power cuts and blackouts
    • Many poorer people get electricity by illegally tapping into the main supply 

Oppurtunity 

  • Healthcare- Medical staff treat and detect diseases in people's homes:
    • Reduces infant mortality 
    • Increases life expectancy
  • Education- Authorities have: 
    • Given school grants to poor families
    • Opened a private university in Rocinha favela
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Social challenges continued

  • Water supply- New pipes and 7 treatment plants built 
    • By 2014, 95% of population had mains water
  • Energy- New powerlines installed and a new nuclear generator built
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Economic challenges

  • Unemployment- A recession in 2015 increased unemployment
    • Wide contrasts in wealth 
    • Unemployment rates in favelas are over 20%
    • Most people work in the informal economy where jobs are poorly paid and irregular
  • Crime- Murder, kidnapping and armed assualt occur reguarly 
    • Powerful gangs control drug trafficking in many of the favelas 

Solutions 

  • Unemployment- Schools of tommorow programme aims to improve education in the poor and violent areas
    • Free child care is provided to enable teenage parents to return to education
  • Crime- Pacifying police units (UPPs) were established to reclaim favelas from drug dealers 
    • Police have taken control of some crime-dominated favelas 
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Environmental challenges

  • Air pollution & congestion- Air pollution causes around 5000 deaths per year in Rio. 
    • Steep mountains limit where roads can go 
    • The number of cars has grown 
    • High crime levels mean people prefer to drive
  • Water pollution- Guanabara bay is highly polluted
    • Rivers are polluted by open sewers in the favelas because the government hasn't paid for sewage pipes 
    • Oil spills 
    • Ships empty fuel tanks into bay 
  • Waste pollution:
    • Many favelas are on steep slopes with few proper roads so waste collection is difficult 
    • Most waste is dumped and pollutes water system, causing diseases and encouraging rats. 

 

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Environmental solutions

  • Air pollution & Traffic congestion:
    • Expansion of the metro system- cuts use of cars 
    • New toll roads 
    • Making coast roads one-way during rush hours 
  • Water pollution: 
    • New sewage works have been built 
    • Ships are fined for discharging fuel illegally 
    • New sewage pipes have been installed
  • Waste pollution:
    • A power plant has been set up- consumes 30 tonnes of rubbish a day and produces enough electricity for 1000 homes
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Favela challenges

  • Crime- High murder rate and drug gangs dominate 
  • Health- High infant mortality rate:
    • Waste can't be disposed of and builds up in the street, increasing the danger of disease 
  • Services- In the non-improved favelas: 
    • 12% of homes have no running water 
    • 30% have no electricity 
    • 50% have no sewerage connections 
  • Construction- Houses are built with basic materials on steep slopes:
    • Heavy rain can cause landslides 
  • Unemployment- Rates are as high as 20%
    • Average incomes may be less than £75 a month
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Favela barrio project

  • It's a site and service scheme- local authority provides land and services for residents to build homes

Olympic affect on favelas 

  • Some favelas were demolished to make way for the developments for the 2016 olympic games 
  • Advantages: 
    • For some, the houses are better than the favelas 
    • The quality of life, mobility and employment prospects of the inhabitants have improved
  • Disadvantages:
    • Newly built infrastructure isn't being maintained 
    • Residents lack the skills and resources to make repairs 
    • More training is needed to improve literacy and employment 
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