HUMAN ATTACHMENT

  • Created by: AnnabellP
  • Created on: 13-10-17 09:59

THE EVOLUTIONARY THEORY OF ATTACHMENT

  • TWO THEORIES THAT EXPLAIN WHY ORGANISMS ATTACH
  • THIS IS ONE OF THEM
  • TO SURVIVE - SPECIES ATTACH, CAREGIVER HAS A ROLE WHERE FOOD AND PROTECTION WITH HAVE TO BE PROVIDED TO THE CHILD
  • SURVIVAL ADVANTAGE - AN ABILITY/TRAIT THAT INCREASES THE CHANCES IN SURVIVAL
  • ATTACHMENT = SURVIVAL ADVANTAGE
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BOWLBY'S THEORY OF ATTACHMENTS

  • SAID: INFANT HAS BIOLOGICAL NEED TO FORM AN ATTACHMENT TO ITS MAIN CAREGIVER
  • HUMAN ATTACHMENT = MORE COMPLEX THAN ANIMALS
  • BOWLBY - INFANT'S ATTACHMENT = MONOTROPY
  • MONOTROPY - ATTACHMENT TO ONE PERSON
  • ATTACHMENTS = RECIPROCAL
  • RECIPROCAL - TWO-WAY PROCESS
  • CAREGIVERS = FORM ATTACHMENT WITH CHILD AS WELL
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SOCIAL RELEASERS

  • SOCIAL RELEASER - SIGNALLING BEHAVIOURS FROM THE CHILD IDENTIFYING THE NEED FOR PROTECTION, TRIGGERING AN ATTACHMENT FROM THE CAREGIVER
  • BOWLBY - BABIES =  PROGRAMMED TO ENGAGE IN THESE BEHAVIOURS
  • MOTHER - RESPOND TO SOCIAL RELEASERS - SHARES GENETIC MATERIAL WITH CHILD - LOOK AFTER HER INVESTMENT
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ATTACHMENT HYPOTHESIS

  • TWO TYPES OF HYPOTHESES BASED ON ATTACHMENTS
  • SECURE BASE HYPOTHESIS - IF CHILDREN FEEL SUGGICIENTLY COMFORTED BY THEIR CAREGIVER, THEY ARE MORE LIKELY TO EXPLORE THEIR ENVIRONMENT
  • CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS - THERE MUST BE CONSISTENT EARLY CARE TO FORM AN ATTACHMENT WHICH WILL IMPROVE SOCIAL COMPETENCE
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THE INTERNAL WORKING MODEL

  • IDEA DEVELOPED BY BOWLBY
  • BLUEPRINT FOR INDIVIDUAL'S FUTURE NEEDS OF HAVING EMOTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS - RESULT OF INFANT/CAREGIVER RELATIONSHIP
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HOW DO ATTACHMENTS FORM?

  • FIXED SEQUENCE

1) NON-FOCUSED ORIENTING & SIGNALLING

  • FIRST FEW MONTHS - INFANT ENGAGES IN SOCIAL RELEASERS
  • DEVELOP PREFERENCE FOR COMPANY OF PEOPLE

2) FOCUS ON ONE OR MORE FIGURES

  • 3 MONTHS
  • INFANT DEMONSTRATES RECOGNITION OF THOSE WHO PROVIDE MOST CARE
  • SHOW PREFERENCE FOR PRIMARY CAREGIVER

3) SECURE BASE BEHAVIOUR

  • 6 MONTHS
  • SIGNALLING BEHAVIOURS DIRECTED TO PRIMARY CAREGIVER
  • SEPARATION ANXIETY
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EVALUATING BOWLBY'S THEORIES - WEAKNESSES

  • SHAFER & EMERSON SHOWED THAT CHILDREN CAN FORM MULTIPLE ATTACHMENTS - DEFIES MONOTROPY CONCEPT
  • BOWLBY PUT TOO MUCH EMPHASIS ON THE MOTHER AND STATED SHE WAS THE ONE THE BABY WOULD FEEL ATTACHED TO. RESEARCH SHOWS THAT SOME BABIES PREFER TO DO CERTAIN ACTIVITIES WITH THE FATHER
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EVALUATING BOWLBY'S THEORIES - STRENGTHS

  • THE CONTINUITY HYPOTHESIS IS SUPPORTED BY O'CONNOR ET AL. THEY SHOWED THAT THOSE WHO DIDNT RECIEVE THE NECESSARY CARE EARLY ON WERE RATED AS LESS SOCIALLY COMPETENT
  • THES SECURE BASE HYPOTHESIS IS SUPPORTED BY HARLOW'S EXPERIMENT WITH HIS MONKEYS
  • BOWLBY'S IDEA OF SEPARATION ANXIETY IS BACKED BY THE FACT THAT INFANTS MAY NOT HAVE OBJECT PERMANENCE
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