Health related exercise components
Everyone needs to have a level of fitness for everyday activities.
Health related exercise improves the health related fitness factors which are also useful to sportspeople. These are:
Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina.
Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. It helps sportspeople to hit, tackle and throw.
Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer.
Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further.
Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights.
NB If you are studying AQA, you should also list speed as a health related fitness factor.
Speed - the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.
Skill related Fitness components
Skill related fitness factors are essential for success in sport.
- Agility - the ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control. This helps team players dodge their opponents.
- Balance - the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance). This helps gymnasts maintain their position and prevents games players from falling over at speed.
- Co-ordination - the ability to use two or more body parts together. This helps all athletes to move smoothly and quickly especially when also having to control a ball.
- Power - the ability to use strength at speed. This helps athletes to jump high, throw far or sprint quickly. Power = Strength x Speed.
- Reaction time - the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. This helps swimmers to make a fast start.
- NB If you are studying Edexcel, you should list speed as a skill related fitness factor.
- Speed - the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time or how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly.