How successful was the struggle through the Courts?

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The Murray Case 1935.

  • A black student was refused  a place at the University of Maryland's all white school due to his colour.
  • Offered a scholarship by the state to study in another state.
  • Court ordered to admit Murray.
  • Forced graduate schools to integrate.
  • Houston and Marshall thought that it infringed his rights to study.
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Gaines Case 1936.

  • Black student who was refused a place at the University of Missouri.
  • Didn't get into the law school.
  • NAACP lost the case.
  • Couldn't get the public support.
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The Sweatt Case 1946.

  • Mailman who applied to the University of Texas and was refused a place.
  • Had the support from 2000 white students - argued that universities should practice the democracy it preaches.
  • Sent to the US Supreme Court on appeal.
  • Only offered education in down town Austin in basement rooms, taught by part time faculty members.
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The McLaurin Case 1946.

  • Refused a place on a doctoral program at the University of Oklahoma.
  • Won the court case and was able to enter the university.
  • Segregated at the cafeteria and library.
  • Suffered daily harrassment and restrictions.
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The Briggs Case 1954.

  • Insufficient and disproportionately allocated fundings - $179 per year on a white student, $43 per year on a black student.
  • J. Waites Waring stated "segregation in education can never produce equality and is an evil that must be eradicated".
  • Court found the psychological effects "irrelevant".
  • Had to wait 2 years for a judgement.
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Brown Case 1954.

  • A 7 year old had to walk across town and cross railway tracks to get to her black school.
  • Judge Huxman agreed that seperate schools for blacks did more bad than good and had a negative impact on the students.
  • Court case constantly undermined by the defence attorney.
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