Took European co-operation seriously from 1945
- Dunkirk Treaty 1947: UK join defensive alliance with France.
- Brussels Treaty 1948: Extends the Dunkirk Treaty.
- OEEC 1948: In UK interests to promote political and economic co-operation in Europe.
- Council of Europe 1949: UK favourable to intergovernmental European ties.
- NATO created 1949: Military alliance with US + 9 European countries.
- Opposed Pleven plan but wanted to see Germany rearmed as part of NATO.
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Before 1960 UK don't take co-operation seriously
- 1950: UK refuse to get involved with Pleven Plan, ECSC, Schuman Plan and EDC.
- UK not willing to sacrifice sovereignty for closer ties with Europe, and less threatened by Germany than France.
- UK refuse to join supranational organisations.
- 1957: UK refuse to join EEC - little economic benefits for UK.
- Closer ties with Europe would undermine world power status.
- Foreign policy based on maintaining special relationship with US and Empire/Commonwealth.
- UK want to shape Europe but not be shaped by Europe.
- 1959: EFTA was formed to gain economic and political concessions from EEC.
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Took UK co-operation very seriously after 1960
- Apply to join EEC 1961.
- Macmillan fills cabinet with pro-Europeans.
- UK comes to realise that by joining the EEC they can retain world power status.
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