How personalities and policies influenced the outcome by 1929

Read through the cards on the 5 contenders for power at this time

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Background - born in 1879 to a well-off Jewish family of independent farmers, joined a revolutionary group before his exile to Siberia in 1902 due to political radicalisation. Joined Lenin + other Marxists on his return

Revolutionary record - Leading figure of the St Petersburg Soviet in Nov 1905. Won support from the Party in 1917 and planned the seizure + consolidation of power due to his leadership of the Red Army (1918-21)

Relationship with Lenin - In 1903 he opposed Lenin (was a Menshevik) but when he returned in 1917 he worked closely with Lenin in the Communist Party. They agreed over the issue of the Red Army and Trotsky was basically just a younger Lenin. His self-confidence was seen as arrogance

Appeal within the Party - 1905, 1917, Civil War + speeches won him young Communists' support. Not a typical Communisy so had enemies who were. After exile, he was one of the most 'western' + urban whereas Russia was rural and proud of its history - alienated him. Wasn't loved for his late entry to the party.

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Background - born in 1879, Georgian parents, went to a local religious school and continued spiritual education until he converted to Marxism. Joined Communists in 1902 and made a member of the Central Committee in 1912 - in trouble with the police during this time which he was exiled to Siberia for, but he escaped.

Revolutionary record - Carried out the orders Oct Rev-Lenin's death rather than leading. Saw himself as a military tactician + refused Trotsky's authority during the Civil War. Didn't make himnself known as a revolutionary hero but did sit at the top of the govt because of his roles in many senior committees.

Relationship with Lenin - First meeting in 1905, Lenin relied on Stalin's loyalty and ability during Oct Rev. Stalin backed Lenin on controversial issues before his illness began, then opposed them when he fell ill. Lenin was critical of Stalin in his Testament saying he didn't use power wisely. Lenin asked the party to find a way of removing Stalin, but also realised he was one of the 'most able' along with Trotsky.

Appeal within the Party - Had the power to advance careers of Communists, appeared to be the voice of 'calm moderation' and prepared to appeal for national pride.

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Background - born in 1888 (youngest) parents were teachers and joined Communists in 1906. Arrested + imprisoned for revolutionary activity many times. Escaped from Russia in 1910 and met Lenin in exile 1912

Revolutionary record - one of the main figures in 1917 (Moscow Communist Party) his radicalism inspired the party to seize power in Moscow in Oct Rev. Civil War-encouraged German communists to seize power in Germany

Relationship with Lenin - admired Lenin + praised him in 1916. Lenin referred to him as the 'golden boy' of the party in return. Completely ideologically different. Headed the first Communist opposition group who criticised Lenin's policy of peace with Germany. Then abandoned his early radicalism and embraced NEP. He didn't convince people he was fully Marxist, which Lenin stated, so the Party almost discounted him because of this.

Appeal within the Party - 'favourite of the whole Party', 1921-a foreign visitor was to be the eventual successor of Lenin. Was honest, fair + incorrupt

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Background - born in 1883, dad was a Jewish dairy farmer. Home-schooled so least educated. Joined in 1903, arrested in 1907 and exiled to Switzerland where he became Lenin's closest collaborator

Revolutionary record - Oct Rev-opposed the planned coup + remained in Petrograd's best hotel during the Civil War

Relationship with Lenin - Worked with Lenin on a lot of things during his exile and returned to Russia at the same time. He disagreed with Lenin on 2 big issues after their return including the imminent seizure of power (should share power - Z) after he had dropped his opposition, he became one of Lenin's most loyal men again but his disloyalty and lack of vision was mentioned in Lenin's Testament.

Appeal within the Party - least appealing, could be a good speaker when crowd on his side. Was vain, no ambition and didn't have many successes

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Background - born in 1883 with a working-class background. Revolutionary career began in 1900 when expelled from school. Arrested + exiled in 1902 and joined Lenin. Returned to Russia to work for the Party and was exiled again twice. His first wife was Trotsky's sister.

Revolutionary record - more known for caution. Opposed Lenin on April Theses, Oct Rev, and creation of an all-Communist govt. Didn't play any notable part in the Civil War.

Relationship with Lenin - was his 2nd closest friend (after Zinoviev) one of the most authoratitive Communists to oppose Lenin's push for power in 1917. Reconciled with Lenin after Oct Rev but was singled out with Zinoviev as disloyal in Lenin's Testament

Appeal within the Party - had little ambituion and didn't see any reason to consolidate his support. Was intellectual but not a good speaker. Had a rep for compromising and giving up easily

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Party positions

Politburo (top of the Party) - decided matters of policy and issued instructions to be followed. 1919-effectively the govt of Russia. All contenders had a seat, but Bukharin couldn't vote (candidate member). Kamenev became Chairman of the CC on Lenin's death, a high role elected by members of the Politburo

The Secretariat put into practice the decisions the Politburo made. Stalin was made head of the Secretariat by Lenin in 1922. Had to interpret and implement Politburo decisions. Also had to give the Politburo information + administrative support. Although he had a lot to do, the role was regarded one of the most unimportant by senior members of the Party.

Also head of the Central Control Commision (set up by Lenin in 1921 to eradicate corruption from the Party). Stalin had the power to investigate + discipline members of the Party.

Communist Party was organised into local Party groups e.g. Petrograd (Z) + Moscow (K). Kamenev a poor administrator so failed to earn the respect of the local Party

Bukharin responsible for all city newspapers and editor of 2 most important. Able to influence Party opinion/ deny opponents access to the press. Also responsible for educational academies.

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Government positions

Sovnarkom - ministerial committee at the head of the govt, including Stalin + Trotsky.

Trotsky's most important role in the govt was Head of Red Army-earned him the respect of young Party members but made senior Communists jealous of the attention.

Stalin's role was Commissar of Nationalities-responsible for overseeing affairs of all non-Russians in the USSR (50% of the population) and communicating with senior officials throughout the USSR. Stalin able to manipulate his position to gain loyalty for who he had responsibility of.

Lenin was Chair of the Sovnarkom and Kamenev served as deputy initially but then Trotsky was offered the position which he refused. Kamenev was acting Chairman + head of the Soviet throughout Lenin's illness

1919 - expanded to include Commissar of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate which was similar to the Central Control Commission for the Party. Stalin was given the power to investigate + expel those working for the govt. Increased his power of patronage and ensured govt workers who wanted to stay in work would be loyal to him. Z + B didn't serve on Lenin's Sovnarkom.

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