How effectively did Lenin deal with the problems he faced between 1917 and 1924?

OCR History AS Level. Russia 1894 - 1941.

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December 1917, Sovnarkon set up secret police.

All history driven by class struggle, burgeoise would oppose, therefore had to be hunted down. 

Opponents on the left hunted down, several hundred anarchists arrested in April 1918. 1921 - 143 000 members. 1918 - 50 000 people estimated to have been killed by the Cheka. 

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Number of Members.

1917 - only 300 000 members. Not enough to ensure control over Russia. Soviets began to set up across towns and cities. Military revolutionaries. Much of Russia under Bolshevik control. Other parties would pose a threat to his rule - set up Sovnarkom.

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Support of the Army.

Needed full support of Army. Many army generals did not like the denouncing of their ranks, quick to desert/turn against Lenin. Major issue to control, needed experienced officers. 

Ordered Armistice with Germany, finish WW1 and bring peace like his promises. General ordered to present the treaty refused. Force lead by the Bolshevis sent to punish him and sign the treaty instead. Traitors men had turned on him and killed him, which ended their first emergency and war with Germany.

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Introduced in December 1917 - secret police force, the Cheka. 1918 - 120 members. 1921 - 140 000 members. Force needed. 1918 - Cheka single handedly eliminated 50 000 opponents. Labour camps set up, consisted of political prisoners.

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Civil War

Many Russians did not like the idea of a one party government, and forced equality. 

Three main rivals; Greens, Whites, Reds. Common aim helped them to win war. Propaganda, other armies did not use.Bolsheviks - central position in Russia. Train hubs, main munition factories, population in Petrograd and Moscow. Great communication.

Industry fell apart being run by workers, shortage of raw materials. Industrial output shrank. Shortage of goods led to inflation. Value of Rouble collapsed.

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Red Army

Commissar for war - 1918. Restored discipline and turned army into effective fighting force. Returned previous officers to train and command army. Stalin and Zinoviev resented the hierarchial army. Lenin let him as he saw the urgency. Harsh military discipline; death penalty.

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Trotsky strengths; passion, energy and organisation. Travelled in specially equipped train providing support and weapons. Inspired men to fight harder.Turned Yudenich army away from Petrograd as Bolsheviks moved to Moscow.

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War Communism

War communism adopted to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food throughout the civil war.Munitions needed to be produced, Included grain requisitioning, banning of private trade, nationalisation of trade and rationing. Red Guards sent to find grain for cities.

Red Terror to back up War communism. SR's arrested with anarchists. Tsar and his family executed on 17th July 1918. Prisoners shot out of hand.

Life in Russia 1918 - 1921 matter of survival.Famine, collapsed economy and industry. Transport system on brink of collapse. Grain production fell massively.War over, peasants bitter.

Kronstadt Uprising - March 1921. Naval Base, sailors mutinied hoping to start revolt against Bolsheviks. Demanded democracy and civil rights. Made him realise that War Communism was not working.

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After war - wanted to increase output of economy. Grain requisitioning abolished - replaced by 'tax in kind' peasants had to give fized proportion of grain to state. could sell surplus on the market.

Small businesses reopened. Private ownershipp, s

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