How did Mussolini attempt to transform the Italian character and Italian society: ELITE and TOTALITARIANISM.

The 2nd 'E' in PRECEPT, and the T.


The elite.

  • Mussolini gained the support of elite and middle classes by crushing Socialism.
  • The class structure remained unchanged e.g. there were class divisions in O.N.D. activities.
  • Limited transformation of the social hierarchy.
  • Mussolini had to adapt his Fascist policies to appeal to these groups.
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Totalitarian state.

  • Opposition was suppressed through the banning of opposition parties, censorship, and violence.
  • The O.V.R.A. (secret police) were set up.
  • They were used to spy on opposition groups.
  • However: many people did not believe in Fascism, they simply conformed to Fascist ideals.
  • This was despite incentives offered and the threat of violence.
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