How did Mussolini attempt to tranform the Italian character and Italian society? RADICALISATION FROM 1936 ONWARDS.

P.R.E.C.E.P.T

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Spiritual revolution.

  • By the mid-1930s most Italians had failed to take on the Fascist spiritual revolution.
  • Mussolini criticised their Bourgeois mentality.
  • He felt that they were: .Pacifist .Complacent .Materialistic .Too attracted to Western Democracies .Needed toughening up.
  • He became more determined to forge an imperial and aggresive nation.
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The more ridiculous.

  • 1938: tried to abolish the use of the friendly form of 'you' and the use of the handshake.
  • Party leaders: had to learn to ride a horse, and a motorcycle, as well as do gymnastics.
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Controls over personal life.

  • Ministry of Popular Culture created in 1937.
  • Creation of G.I.L. put youth movements under Fascist party control.
  • Expansion of OND: greater stress on a more committed Nation of Fascists.
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Political changes.

1939: Chamber of Fasces and Corporations.

  • Replaced the old Parliament.
  • Change from appeasing the elite to engaging the masses.
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Additional points: opinions.

  • Anti-semite decrees unpopular:
  • Not properly enforced.
  • Only in 1943 that Jews were sent to concentration camps.

-Concern was aroused among the elite about the direction of the regime.

  • Doubts about whether Mussolini was the best protector of their interests.
  • These concerns escalated during World War Two.

-Attempts at radicalisation not accepted by Italian people.

  • Viewed with hilarity and irritation.
  • Not taken seriously.
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