Nazi Party early years
Hitler was a good soldier in the first world war and blamed communists and jews for loss of war.
he was still employed by the army after war investigating whether extremism needed to be crushed he was sent to the German workers party in 1919 and joined. in 1920 it changed its name to the Nazi party.
In 1921 Hitler became leader and the SA, brownshirts were set up to protect meeting and beat up opposition.
The early aims of the Nazi Party were, remove Jews from positions of power, nationalise industry, educate gifted children at the states expense, abolish the treaty of versailles, abolish weimar government, increase pensions, destroy marxism, Rearm Germany, conquer lebensraum, have a strong central government, fight violence with violence.
Though failure Hitler concluded good failed because:
trial allowed Hitler time to talk very good at it
They were not organised enough
Nazis after Munich Putsch
Won working classes with anti-jewish propaganda
had public meetings to communicate with and persuade public.
changed policies to suit public
although membership almost doubled between 1927 and 28, only won 12 seats in 1928 election.
Goebbels- little man with club foot, in charge of propaganda, womaniser
Georing- world war one fighter pilot, set up SS and concentration camps but lost control of them to Himmler.
Himmler- previously chicken farmer, very precise, had control of SS and concentration camps.
Hess- loved Hitler, his personal assistant, flew to scotland without permission to try and negotiate peace, had no ambition and not much power.
Rohm- homosexual, had control of SA was murdered on night of long knives, brutal but effective.
Wall street crash in 1929 meant America withdrew Dawes plan
this ruined German buisness which relyed on American money
many people became homeless.
40 percent factory workers by 1932 were unemployed
60 percent graduates could jobs
6 million unemployed
there was a great food shortage food prices rose.
Weimar economic policies and presidential rule
were afraid of printing money (great inflation)
so raised taxes and cut benefits to try and spread them further.
Everyone loved that! not
Chancellor Brunig had to rule by emergency decree because he could not form a coalition.
This meant that Germany was being run by 84 year old Hindenburg who was controlled by army leaders and buisness men
The rise of extremism
Weimar government unable to cope with depression rise in support of Nazis and communists.
Both parties promised to solve the economic problems
many were attracted to the Nazi arguments (blame Jews communist etc)
Nazis won 107 seats in 1930 elections and communists won 77
They were very well organised
they had the support of the industralists
Propaganda increased support
they used technology such as the radio, when Hitler was running for president he was flown all over Germany to make 5 speeches in a day.
They portrayed Hitler as a superman, he was a very good public speaker. He appeared to be the strong leader Germany needed.
they were flexible they dropped unpopular policies
They promised whatever people wanted to hear
Hitler becomes chancellor
1932 Hitler runs for president, Hindenburg wins but it is close. The Nazi party wins 230 seats. Hitler wants to be chancellor but Von Papen is appointed. He does not have much support in the reichstag but sets up a right wing government. Hitler will not cooperate. Another election is called. The Nazis lose 34 seats because of SA brutality.
Von Sleicher is appointed chancellor. He has no support in the reichstag. He resigns. Von Papen makes a deal with Hitler, Hitler will be chancellor if Von Papen is in the cabinet. Von Papen convinces Hindenburg that if they only have two Nazis in the cabinet they can crush Nazi extremist policies.
Jan 30th 1933 Hitler is appointed chancellor