Who does them? How often? Which jobs?
OAKLEY - greater equality in the middle class. Low participation by husbands. More in childcare than in housework. (15% high particpation in housework, 25% in childcare) Many women did not expect men to help out = role of "housewife" created by industrialisation?
BRITISH SOCIAL ATTITUDES SURVEY - women had become more involved in traditional mens roles e.g repairs. Tasks still largely done by females.
TIME-USE SURVEYS - time spent on housework has declined. Men tend to exaggerate how much they do whilst women under-estimate themselves. How much time they spend on task still doesn't tell us the amount of effort/strength a task takes to do.
BOULTON - Men often helped but did not take PRIMARY responsibility. Women more likely to put their lives second. 18% of husbands gave extensive help. 46% gave minimal help. HOWEVER - BOULTON ONLY INTERVIEWED THE WOMEN.
FERRI & SMITH - Father = main carer in less than 4% of households, rarely looked after the children when they were ill. Womens employment seems to have limited impact on equality in the household.
"EMOTION WORK" & VIOLENCE
DUNCOMBE & MARSDEN - "emotion work" (keeping people happy, making things run smoothly etc) was mostly performed by women. Many women felt their partners did not show their feeling enough therefore they had to maintain family happiness/stability themselves. Women did the TRIPLE SHIFT - (most of the housework + paid employment + most of the emotion work)
DOBASH & DOBASH - 25% of all serious domestic violence assaults were husbands on wives. Marriage is unequal as women are made dependent in their roles as mothers. In domestic abuse therefore, women are forced to stay in the situation due to economic dependence. HOWEVER - when they conducted this case many were losing their jobs in the industrial society leading to a "masculinity crisis", this extra pressure could have inflated the results at this time as men were facing stress and unhappiness.
EDGELL - Husband = moving house, finance and car (seen as important by all the family). Wives = internal decoration, childrens clothes, domestic spending (seen as relatively unimportant). 1/2 husbands "equality is bad!".
NB DAVIS - many women accept the power situation or use it to manipulate mens power.
- Non decision making - many tasks are not decided, they just happen!
- Taken for granted that the mans job generally comes first
- Women will give up employment when she has children
- Domestic tasks are assumed to be "womens work"
- PAHL - men spent more on themselves and usually had more power
- husband-controlled pooling: most common. Money shared but husband had more control and wife earnt less.
- wife-controlled pooling: next most common. Money shared but wife did most of the spending/paying the bills. Often occured when both had well-paid jobs.
- husband-control: husband had main/only wage, complete control of wife. Wife often given "house-keeping" money.
- wife-control: least common, often where there was low income/no earner. Women given responsibility of "making-ends meet"
EFFECTS OF WORK OUTSIDE THE HOME
MARTIN & ROBERTS - men more likely to be involved in housework/childcare if wife worked full time.(however, 54% of full-time & 77% of part-time women workers did all/most of housework.
GERSHUNNEY - where wife is not in work = husbands total hours of working is more. Wife in full time work = husbands share of total work is less (women have a worse deal when they are in full-time work)
HARDILL ET ALL - 63% couples = mens career takes precedence, 17% of couples womens career took precedence.
SULLIVAN - men spent more time in paid work but spent more of their leisure time relaxing/sleeping/socialising whilst women spent their free time on housework/childcare.
CONCLUSION & SAME-SEX COUPLES
Therefore, there has been some movement towards equality but women are still a long way away. They still have prime responsibility over household tasks and overall less power. Although women are gaining more independence from employment, the changes in households have been rather limited.
WEEKS - lesbian couples deliberately worked to achieve an equal relationship.
DUNNE - greater symmetry in homosexual relationships. Childcare was highly valued. However, when one was in full time work, they did less housework than the other.
THEREFORE - PAID EMPLOYMENT IS A MAJOR FACTOR IN DETERMINING THE DOMESTIC DIVISION OF LABOUR.