How Hitler became Chancellor

  • Created by: chart859
  • Created on: 14-05-19 16:31

Collapse of Muller's Grand Coalition

  • It was the issue of finance that brought down the gov't in March 1930
  • The coalition was the last democratic gov't of the WR containing; SDP, Z, DDP and DVP
  • Couldn't agree on how to tackle the deficit in national insurance schemes due to the sharp increase in unemployment.

>SDP, political supporters of Trade Unions, wanted to increase contributions and maintain high levels of welfare payments

>DVP, who had ties to big business, insisted on reducing benefits (austerity)

  • Hindenburg wouldn't allow Muller use of Article 48
  • Muller could no longer maintain a majority so tendered his resignation of his gov't
  • Last gov't with a working majority in Reichstag

MULLER WAS THE LAST EXAMPLE OF A PARLIAMENTRY GOV'T IN WR

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Heinrich Bruining and his policies + their impact

  • Appointed Chancellor (30-32) as he was the leader of the 2nd largest party (ZP)
  • Crucial step in ending parliamentry gov't as Bruning manouvered into office by a select circle of political intriguers, who surrounded the aging P Hindenburg
  • Bruning's economic policy proposed cuts in gov't expenditure, to achieve a balanced budget and prevent the risk of reviving inflation.

*His proposals were rejected by the R'stag but passed as an emergency decree under Article 48

  • His austerity programme squeezed the middle and working classes, which drastically cut spending and saw taxes rise earning him the title 'Hunger Chancellor'
  • B saw the chance to split Bankrupt states of Prussia, which would then be given to families to work on- never put into practice as he was removed from gov't
  • The German people suffered heavily under Bruning's policies but they eventually pulled G out of depression, however Nazis got the credit
  • B was dismissed by Hindenburg in 1932, who was a Prussian land owner
  • Only survived as Chancellor as he had the personal backing of the President
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Franz Von Papen

  • Chancellor May 1932-Dec 1932
  • Very limited political experience and was a close friend of Hindenburg
  • Was an aristocrat, who had good connections with high society- catholic and member of ZP but his political views mirrored those of nationalists
  • Didn't hold a seat in the R'stag and his gov't was called a non party gov't of 'national concentration - nicknamed 'Cabinet of Barons'
  • Presidential gov't dominated by aristocratic landowners and industrialists
  • In order to strengthen gov't he sought support of Hitler and the Nazis - he did this by:

>End gov't ban on the SA and **

> Dissolution of R'stag and the calling of fresh elections

  • He successfully introduced a Presidential gov't and the after math of July 32' election highlighted democrats didn't oppose his actions in Prussia, and their passive responce shows how far the forces of democracy had lost the initiative
  • Was forced to resign when the army informed Hindenburg of their lack of confidence in him
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Kurt Von Schleicher

  • Dec 32' - Jan 33'
  • Replaced Von Papen as Chancellor
  • His aims were to achieve political stability and restore national confidence by creating a more broadly based gov't
  •  His strategy was to:

1. Gain support from the political left by suggesting a programme of public works

2. Split the Nazis and attract their socialist wing

  • Appointed Gregor Strasser as Chancellor
  • Felt VP's approach had been too narrow
  • The elites resented his preparedness to consider agrarian reform
  • Trade unions were suspicious of his motive and broke off negotiations
  • His attempt to split the Nazis caused huge tensions and saw Strasser forced to resign
  • Hindenburg was convinced to replace him when he couldn't split Nazi party
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Political Intrigue

  • While VP was Chancellor he was heavily influenced by VS and Hindenburg
  • Hindenburg was getting involved in political intrigue, as he was testing different people in different positions to try and achieve an authoritarian gov't, where he was in complete control
  • VP was responsible for convincing Hindenburg to make Hitler Chancellor in 1933
  • Hindenburg allowed the misuse of Article 48
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Hindenburg

  • President from 1925-34
  • Misused Article 48 from 1930 onwards
  • By allowing successive Chancellors to dissolve parliament and rule by emergency decree (Art 48), Hindenburg accustomed people to authoritarian rule, thus paved the way for Nazis
  • Allowed his son's sexuality to be used against him
  • Following Schleicher turning against VP, Papen was determined to regain political office so covinced Hindenburg to replace him with Hitler (intrigue was used to unseat VS)

30th January 1933, Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany and Hindenburg agreed to sanction the creation of a Nazi-Nationalist coalition

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