How did the ANC strengthen its position after the reverses of the early 1970s

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Difficulties in exile

  • ANC established a number of boards internationally, including in London 
  • ANC activities were concentrated in Zambia and Tanzania 
  • ANC thought it would be good to be placed in African countires near South Africa 
  • MK also moved to Zambia, this was the base for two attempts at major military incursions 
  • The Wankie campaign ocurred through a group of 50 trained MK guerillas that crossed the Zambezi and attempted to creat a route from Zimbabwe to South Africa
  • They were destroyed by Rhodesian government forces
  • The Zambian government became concerned as their country was being used as a base for these organisations
  • Kaunda erged Oliverr Tambo to find new bases, even though they were sympathetic to apartheid. 
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Internal reorganization and external legitimacy

  • Tambo faced major crisis in the ANC 
  • Took personal responsibility for the military failings and sought a route of consensus
  • Tambo resigned in 1969 but immediately got re-elected. After this, there were no longer four seperate congresses that mimicked apartheid racial divisions. 
  • Affirmed the importance of armed struggle but also stressed the importance on political leadership and political unity
  • A group within the ANC beleived it should have just remained African and when they expressed their views publically, they got expelled
  • Tennyson Makiwane, he was one of the people expelled  
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Oliver Tambo and the ANC

  • ANC was scattered in a lot of places and prone to ideological arguments, making it very difficult for Oliver Tambo. 
  • Tambo held strongly ANC's philosophy of non-racialism and he worked with exiles from all South African communities. 
  • Recognised the value of the multi-racial AAM even though it was independent from the ANC 
  • Valued international solidarity 
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Global anti-apartheid movement and international b

Sporting boycotts

  • 'Stop the Seventy Tour' between 1960 to 1970
  • Target was the South African rugby team tour over Britain and Ireland 
  • There were mass demonstrations and pitch invasions
  • The tour was disrupted however it was not called off. 
  • The 1970 cricket tour to Britain was also cancelled due to these boycotts organised by the AAM
  • Some New Zealand rugby players would have been considered Coloured in South Africa however these players were allowed in the New Zealand rugby tour 
  • But when South Africa went to New Zealand there were only white South Africans. This was cancelled though due to the 'Halt all Racists Tours'
  • 'Glenealgles Agreement- discouraged signatories from playing South Africa
  • Cricket and rugby boycotts upsettened white South Africans
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Global anti-apartheid movement and international b

Economic boycotts 

  • Economic disengagment with South Africa wasn't good for the Conservative Party in the UK. At that time the prime minister Heath has just been elected
  • Britain was still South Africas most important trading partner
  • 1970's - constructive engagement- overseas investors should influence an improvement on wages and conditions for black workers
  • They also believed (the British) that economic growth would revel reveal the weaknesses of apartheid
  • If economy expanded, it would be harder for South African government to control urbanisation
  • Companies would need more skilled black workers- leading the government to realise they had to relax on the race laws
  • AAM opposed this, having the idea that economic engagement would be business as usual enabling foreign companies to make large profits. 
  • Believed comprehensive sanctions, with internal protest could bring South Africa to change its policies. 
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