How and why has popualtion changed

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Population Change

On average, global population is increasing BUT is predicted to decrease in the future eg: demographic transition model stage 5.

But places like Europe are decreasing in population and places like Tanzania are growing in population.

Basically, on average, developing countries tend to be growing faster than developed countries and they can actually be decreasing like Italy. 

This means that it's hard to predict how and where population will grow in the future because the growth around the world varies in developed and developing countries.

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Demographic Transition Model


The demographic transition model shows population change over time.

It studies and tells us how birth rate and death rate affects the total population of a country.

There are 5 stages.

Birth rate - number of births per 100 per year

  • Economic benefit
  • No pensions in a country means that families will have more children so they can look after them when they're older.
  • Contraception.
  • Pro-natalist policy/anti-natalist policy
  • War - baby boom, family separation
  • Lack of education
  • Female status

Death rate - number of deaths per 100 per year

  • Vaccinations
  • Better health care
  • Population (from baby boom)
  • Increase in diseases
  • Natural disasters
  • War, crime
  • Good sanitation
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As you can see, Somalia has a youthful population possibly from:

  • baby boom
  • lack of education
  • womens status
  • lack of contraception
  • high infant mortality rates
  • no family planning
  • early marriages
  • poor sanitation

The pyramid also shows higher birth rates than death rates leading to...

NATURAL INCREASE !!! (birth rate-death rate)

There is also a small bulge from a higher birth rate or Imigration.

If the bulge is very BIG, then over the years they will become ELDERLY DEPENDANTS  - this can lead to an ageing population, or a need for more children to look after them.

A response to a youthful population could be that Governments can introduce an anti-natalist policy to decrease the birth rates and therefore decrease population growth.

However this can cause discrimination against girls as boys are a stronger work force and stay with their families when they marry!

But the Government can always just discourage large families with things like advertismants.

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The cause of Italy's ageing population was the post war baby boom, then the birth rate began to decrease afterwards.

This lead to:

  • Shortage of care homes and hospitals
  • Pension schemes under pressure as number of retired increases and ecomically active decreases
  • more money has to go towardshealth and social services
  • BUT THERE ARE GOOD THINGS! The elderly spend the grey pound (money), they have an important role in child care and supporting public transport.

Italy's response to this was to introduce a pro-natalist policy which meant Italian citizens got a 'baby bonus' when they had a kid.

A reason they did this was that if they didn't, they wouldn't have enough youthful dependants to become economically active to support the country.

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  • Countries manage their populations so that the structure doesn't become unbalanced.
  • For example, too many elderly dependants or too many babies.
  • Also, an environment can only support so many, so it's dangerous to exceed the limit.


  • China's population was spinning out of control. WAY TOO MANY BABIES!
  • They introduced an anti-natalist policy to restrict population  growth.
  • Families were only allowed ONE child


  • Birth rate will decrease so population growth will slow - 300 000 000 people weren't born
  • Reduces poverty, starvation etc.
  • less people=more resources each


- the 'granny police' spyed to see if women were getting pregnant illegally. They 'forced' an abortion at whatever stage of pregnancy a woman is at. Often through threats like taking land.

- there were no cousins, no brothers and sisters, and no aunts and uncles.

- Boys were more favourable because they are a stronger work force and stay with their families whe they get married.

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Population and Migration

Population: number of people in a place

Growing exponentially: doubling in number (like bacteria)

Carrying capacity: the maximum population a environment can support

Birth rate: number of births per 1000 per year

Death rate: number of deaths per 1000 per year

Natural increase: difference between birth rates and death rates (BR-DR)

Migration: movement of people or animalsfrom one place to another

Immigrant: someone who moves into a country 

Emigrant: someone who moves out of a country

Net migration: Difference between immigrants and emigrants

Economic migrant: A person who migrants for work purposes

Refugee: Someone who's been forced to leave their country

Asylum seeker: Someone who leaves a country in search of asylum (safe haven) in another

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Push and Pull

Why do people move? Because stuff is better in other countries than their own, and stuff in their own country is bad... Well that's clear then

Push factors

  • Natural disasters
  • Crime
  • Unstable
  • Unemployment
  • Oppresion
  • Racism
  • Dictatorship
  • War eg: Syria

Pull factors

  • Better quality of life
  • Better paid work
  • Weather
  • Better environment
  • Family
  • Better politics
  • Democracy
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Open Door

  • The name says it all
  • Any person from any part of the world is allowed in the country
  • Advantages: multicultural community, more economically active enter the country, unwanted jobs will be taken, population increases, more people=more money through taxes.
  • Dissadvantages: Overpopulation, if there's a war anywhere refugees will pour in, foreign children take up spaces in schools, loss of natural culture, no control over who comes in (CRIMINALS!)

Points based

  • EG: Regulating immigration to the UK from outside the European Economic Area
  • Advantages: you have control over who comes into your country, if there's a war people won't be pouring in, less risk of overpopulation.
  • Disadvantages: less multicultural diversity, people who are looking for a better life can't get one, smugglers, terrorism (LET US IN!!)
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Migration Impacts

Impacts on host countries:

  • Multiculturalism
  • More money through taxes
  • Unwanted/low paid jobs are taken
  • More economically active people
  • Aging population
  • School places taken
  • Overpopulation - carrying capasity exceeded
  • Not enough resources --> conflict

Impacts on origin countries:

  • Population decrease (can be good or bad)
  • More resources for everyone
  • Death rates could decrease because there are less people to look after so doctors can treat you quicker.
  • loss of economically active so the country will have less money
  • terrorism
  • racism
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Example 1:

The twin brother of Britain’s Olympic gold medal hero Mo Farah has spoken for the first time about how they were torn apart as boys amid the chaos of civil war in Somalia.

In a heartbreaking story of a childhood fractured by violence and turmoil, Hassan Farah has revealed he and Mo had such a close bond that they slept in the same bed and shared food from the same plate.

The pair were so strikingly similar that teachers and even friends confused one for the other.

But the boys were forced to say goodbye at the age of eight when their parents made the agonising decision to send three of their six children, including Mo, to Britain for a chance of a better life. It was a wrench neither of them has forgotten and it was a full 12 years until the twins saw each other again.

Example 2:

In north Africa, people arn't earning enough money to support their families.

Also, there is a civil war in Syria so there are loads of refugees coming from there as well.

In search of jobs, they turned to Italy, a developed country where they could get work.

They risked crossing the Mediterranean... and most of them didn't make it --> all risked for a better life

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