How has global popualtion changed? Where are the c
How has global popualtion changed?
In this graph we can see the slow increase starting at 1300 this increase shows no dramtic changes untill around the 1900 were is starts to raspidely showing gain of 5 billion people in the most recent centry 1900-2000. thingn thast wouild have effected this chnage would be war, lake of wemons status eg no womens rights so therefore no say in if they go to school or not, how many children they have and/if they have a job. In developing countries wemon typiclaly have more children to work on farms, and contraception being less avalible.
Where are the changes taking place?
In developing countries wemon typiclaly have more children to work on farms, and contraception being less avalible this leads to youthfull popualtion, for example Tanzinia.
As we can see in the graph below there is an even distarbution from males to females. Yet there is a very pacific shape to the graph showing the population. As we can see there is a very wide base and a slimmer upper half showing the youthfull popualtion this could be due to the lack of wemons rights (34% of women cannot read). Another factor that would effect this youthful population is acess to contraception this would be quite low by looking at the population as it shows that lots of young dependents.
What is the Deographic Tanstions modle?
A demogarphic transition modle shows how popualtion structure can change over tiem in differnet countries due to the various difernces in birth rate and death rate.
It shows 5 different stages:
- stage one: High stationary (examples: a few remote groups) - birth rates and death rates are high therefore the natural increase is stable or slowly increaseing.
- stage two: Early expanding (examples: Egypt, Kenya, India) - high birth rates, rapidly falling death rates; natuarl increase- falling rapidly.
- stage three: Late expanding (examples: brazil) - birth rates falling, death rates falling more slowly. Natural increase- increase slows down.
- stage four: Low stationary (examples: USA, Japan, France, UK) - low birth rates, low death rates. Natural increase- stable or slow increase.
- stage five: Declining? (example: Germany) birth rate very low, death rate low. Natural increase Slow decrease.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE BIRTH RATES:
- Flamily planning
- Good health
- Improving status of wemon
- Later marriages
- Improving health care and diet
- Fewer children needed
- Many children for farming
- Many children die at a young age
- Religious/social encourgament
- No family planning
FACTORS THAT WOULD INFLUENCE DEATH RATES:
- Disease, Famine.
- Poor medical knowlage
- Improventments in medical care
- Good health care
- Reliable food supply
( DEMOGRAPNIC TRANTION MODLE )
SOMALIA CASE STUDY
Somalia popualtion structure:
This grid shows the very youthful popualtion of Somalia. It had a very wide base of young dependants It's 0-4 years has a popualtion of 1,790,000 children both boys and girls. This promindant part of the popualtion could be down to the dependancy on child labour and/ or the fact that it is mainly a Islamic country and therefore traditionally muslims have many childern and the women do not have much staus.
The amount of young depands could become a problem for somalia as if the population is maintained thought out the decades into when this generation becomes elderly depends Somalia is going to struggle to be able to provide for all these new elderly depends. The need for hospitals, spechial homeing and nurses/doctors will be in high demand.
To respond to the rapidly growning popualtion Somalia could follow in the footsteps of China and introduce an anti-natalist policy in order to reduce the birth rate numbers and create less young dependants for the future.
On the other hand Somalia's elderly dependants isnt at such a high popualtion as, as the structure increases with age the population decreases, having ruffy only 179,000 people around the age of 65-69 in comparision to the UK with a 3,600,000 65-69 age popuation. The cause of such an little elderly depanant section would be due to poor health care, poot diet and povety. To increase the elderly depends Somalia could invest into health care to ensure a better and longer quality of life.
ITALY CASE STUDY
Italy case study on popualtion:
Italy is a developed country with an aging popualtion after WW2 and the baby boom. Italy is now trying to encourage poeople to have more children in order to resove the problem. They now give some mothers "baby bonuses" this mean the give mothers money to support the child they have had to encourage more people to have childern. Is this ethically right though?
This shows italys aging popualtion consiting of a very small young dependant range and a large econically active.when these econically active become the new genration of elderly depndants Italy is going to struggle as there will be more elderly dependants than econically active to support it.
TOO RESOLVE THE PROBLEM:
To resolve the elderly popualtion, Italy could introduce a strict pro natalist policy therefore paying familys to have children and creating a new young genertaion.
WHY DO SOME COUNTRIES MANAGE THEIR POPUALTION - CH
WHY DO COUNTRIES MANAGE THEIR POPUALTION?
Counties manage their popualtion in desperate need during a closen popualtion crisis, an example of this is China. In order for countries to manage their popuation they can introduce one of two policies depends on thier problem firstly -
- Pro-natalist policy: A policy typically intorduced by the government of a country with an aging popualtion in oder to encourage families to have children, this can be done by having a baby bonus - the government gives a certain amount of money to familes for having children.
- Anti-natalist policy: A policy introduced by a government with a rapidly increasing birth rate, the policy is to reduce birth rates. An example of a country that has done this is China (one child policy - 1979)
ANTI-NATALIST POLICY IN CHINA:
- It will help decrease the birth rate therefore eventually slowing down the total popualtion.
- Women are new able to concentrate on their carees rather than rasing lots of children.
- People who follow the policy are offered incentives.
- In the future there will be less preasure on food and jobs.
- Controlling the popualtion will mean there will be enough resources in the future.
- Many people critise the fact that abortions are often forced apon women who are vistably pregant with thier second child.
- The rise of little emporors - children being only child, being spoilt more.
- People are worried about the longer term problems of the policy, the ratio of men to women is unbalenced and can cause problems.
- There have been allogations of female infanticide due to the preasure of couples to have boys.
POPULATION AND MIGRATION KEY WORDS AND MEANINGS.
- Population - Number of people living in a country.
- Birth rate - Babies born per thousand a popaultion per year.
- Death rate - Deaths per thousand a popaultion per year.
- Natural increase - Difference between brith rate and death rate.
- Fertility rate - Average number of childern per women
- Youthful popualtion - A popualtion where the proportion of young dependants is high or growing.
- Aging popualtion - A population where the proportion of elderly dependants is high or growing.
- Life expectancy - Age to which someone lives to on average.
- Careers - Women focusing on these has lead to a decrease in birth rates.
- Medical care - Provided by doctors and in hospitals, this helps increase life expectancy.
- Baby boom - Post WW2 happiness lead to this.
- Dependants - People aged 0-16 and 65+
- Econimically active - Working and paying taxes.
- Contraception - This is widley avalible in Italy and helps planning.
- Pensions - What old people recieve to help them through life.
- Taxes - These are paid by the econically active to support others.
- Immagration - The prosses of moving into a country.
- Pro natalist policy - This aims to increase the birth rate.
- Anti natalist policy - This aims to descrease the birth rate.