Housing and homelessness:

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Why housing and homelessness:

  • need for shelter 
  • divide balance between public and private provisions: 
  • - never a state monopoly 
  • - greater role for private secotr than other 'welfare' areas. 
  • one of beveridge's 5 giant evils 
  • housing a devolved area. 
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housing tenure:

  • owner occupation
  • private rented sector 
  • social rented sector: 
  • - coincil houseing 
  • - housing association accommodation 
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housing tenure:

  • owner occupation
  • private rented sector 
  • social rented sector: 
  • - coincil houseing 
  • - housing association accommodation 
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housing tenure:

  • owner occupation
  • private rented sector 
  • social rented sector: 
  • - coincil houseing 
  • - housing association accommodation 
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Housing before WW1:

  • problems of industrialisation 
  • "a sea of squalid, overcrowded accommodation for the masses" (Blakemore 2013)
  • concern about public health and productivity 
  • Examples of 'industrial paternalism' Blakemore 2013
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Hosing between 1919 and 1979

  • housing and town planning act 1919 gave local authorities responsibility for authorities to build council-housing 
  • moer homes for working class
  • cheaper housing
  • house builiding efforts in the post war era:
  • - distinction between labout and the Conservatives.
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Hosing between 1919 and 1979

  • housing and town planning act 1919 gave local authorities responsibility for authorities to build council-housing 
  • moer homes for working class
  • cheaper housing
  • house builiding efforts in the post war era:
  • - distinction between labout and the Conservatives.
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Thatcher and the "Right to Buy"

  • introduce in 1979 manifesto.
  • Long-standing preference for owner-occupation: 
  • - property owning democracy 
  • council tenants could buy the property they lived in at discounts of 50% or more: 
  • by 1989 some discounts were increased to 70% (Glennerster 2000) 
  • Private ownership of homes 
  • the working class could now buy there own homes 
  • Pierson (1994) notes, the policy was astonishingly successful, with decade of 1.5 million dwellings, 1/5 of the total council house stock - had been sold 
  • change in balance on housing tenures 
  • residuallisation of council housing 
  • but popular, and a vote winnner.
  • huge amounts of people were buying houses with morgages. 
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Thatcher and the "Right to Buy"

  • introduce in 1979 manifesto.
  • Long-standing preference for owner-occupation: 
  • - property owning democracy 
  • council tenants could buy the property they lived in at discounts of 50% or more: 
  • by 1989 some discounts were increased to 70% (Glennerster 2000) 
  • Private ownership of homes 
  • the working class could now buy there own homes 
  • Pierson (1994) notes, the policy was astonishingly successful, with decade of 1.5 million dwellings, 1/5 of the total council house stock - had been sold 
  • change in balance on housing tenures 
  • residuallisation of council housing 
  • but popular, and a vote winnner.
  • huge amounts of people were buying houses with morgages. 
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Help to buy:

  • announced in Geroge Osbournes 2013 budgets, to run for 3 years from april 2013. 
  • stage 1: contain loans of up to 20% to purchase new-build properties. 
  • - equity loan scheme - would be repaid in house proceeds.
  • - 5% desposite" 75% mortage 
  • - up to £600,000 for a home to get this (a lont of money = mabe too high) 
  • stage 2: government would underwite 15% of equity for mortages:
  • - 'mortage garentee scheme' 
  • - new and existing homes 
  • up to £600,000 
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help to buy: Reaction

  • many economists concerned it may create a housing bubble 
  • labour want to focus on housing supply: promise to build 200k homes per yeat by 2020. 
  • osbourned promised to extend help to buy until 2020: and build a new 'garden city' at ebbsfleet. 
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homelessness:

  • roughsleeping 
  • livinig in emergency accommodationg (night shelters) 
  • B&B accommodation
  • insecure accommodation
  • intolerable condition (over crowding) 
  • involuntary sharing 

Fitzpatrick et al 2000

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Rough sleeping:

  • people who sleep rough are 35 times more likely to commit suicide than the general population (crisis wbsite)
  • life expectancy of rough sleepers is: 
  • 47 for a man 
  • 43 for woman 
  • a full 30 years earlier than the rest of the population (Crisis website 2012) 
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Statutory and Non-statutory homelessness:

  • statutory homelessneess when a person meets the definition of homelessness 
  • if no accommodation, and: 
  • are 'eligibe for public funds'
  • have some sort of connection to the area covered by the local authority, known as 'local connection' 
  • can prove that you are 'unintentionally homeless' (not your fault became homeless)
  • can prove you are 'priority need' 
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Priority need:

  • 1996 housing act defined a person with a priority need as being: 
  • a pregnant women
  • dependen children
  • someone vulnerable as a result of old age, illness or disability
  • someone homeless or threaterned with homlessness as a result of an ermergency such as food, fire or other disarester.
  • this was expanded futher still in wales by the 2001 homeless person (priority need) order to include those: 
  • aged 16-17 year old 
  • aged 18-21 years old leaving care of at risk of financial or sexual exploitation 
  • became homeless after leaving aremed forces 
  • former prisoners after being released 
  • fleeing domestice violence or the threat of domestic violence. 

(Crisis website, 2012) 

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number of homeless:

  • estimation is a difficult task
  • no records 
  • official government estimates that there are 2,414 people who rough sleep in england in 2013 
  • - up 5% from 2012 
  • - of whom 542 were rough sleeping in london 
  • over 15,000 household in wales applied to their local authorities for homelessness assistance in 2012/2013
  • - 36% ccepted as being homeless and in 'priority need' 
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cause of homelessness:

  • 'crisis research found that reasons most often cited by map participatns were: 
  • relationship breakdown 
  • substance abuse and misuse 
  • leabing an institution (prison, care, hospital etc) 
  • for homeless women most common: 
  • - physical or mental problems 
  • - escaping a violent relationship 
  • there were also a number of 'structual' issues woth wider society: 
  • - high levels of poverty 
  • - unemployment levels were high 
  • - way in which the benefit systems operates 
  • - way social housing is rationed 
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cause of homelessness:

  • 'crisis research found that reasons most often cited by map participatns were: 
  • relationship breakdown 
  • substance abuse and misuse 
  • leabing an institution (prison, care, hospital etc) 
  • for homeless women most common: 
  • - physical or mental problems 
  • - escaping a violent relationship 
  • there were also a number of 'structual' issues woth wider society: 
  • - high levels of poverty 
  • - unemployment levels were high 
  • - way in which the benefit systems operates 
  • - way social housing is rationed 
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