hot deserts - Thar desert

  • Created by: aliya.03
  • Created on: 30-09-18 15:55

hot deserts intro

deserts mean anywhere recieves an average of less than 250mm of rainfall a year

they are generally found at latitudes 30 degress north and south 

they have a high pressure and are very hot an dry in the day

they are rarely cloudy and can be below freezing at night 

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what are the soils like

the soils are sandy or stony and contain little organic material 

they soak up water quickly and are dry

they also lack fertility and evaporation darws salt to the soil surface which i called salizination which makes it harder fro plants yo grow 

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adaptations- animals

the desert jerboa 

the live in burrowa and are mainyl nocturnal as well as getting their moistrure from seeds and vegetation

you also have camels which have thick fur on the top of their body for shade and thin fur elsewhere for heat loss 

they also have a alarge sa:v ratio to loose a lot of heat 

they alos have the ability to go for a long time without food because of the fat tored in the humps 

they can cope with little water by not sweating and producing minimal urine 

they also have slit like nostrils and two rows of eyelashes to help keep the sand out 

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adaptations - plants

joshua trees 

they have an exstensive netwrok of roots near the soil surface allowing it to cope wiht dry soils where water evaporates quickly and large soil particels that water draisn throuh freely

desert stonecrops 

they have succulent fleshy leaves which store water in the specilised cells, in some plants the cells can survive extreme dehydration

cactus

they have spines which offer protections becasue their cells are full of water that thirsty animals would eat

giant suguaro cactus

they have no leaves btu a green pleated stem which reduces waer required as it photosynthesies via its stem which can swell when water is availabe 

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opportunities for development

energy             around 175 billione tonnes of fossil fuels are found in the desert as well as creating a large wind farm which is solar powered 

farming            the main type of farming is subsistence farming, however development can lead to comercial farming due to irrigation, it happnes in the indira ghandi canal and makes a great variety fo crops such as lentils benas peas and maize

mining         there are 6 main minerals extarcted such as gypsum, feldspar, with the most important being the sanu limestone grown in jaisalmer whch helps mineral extraction, there is also marble from jodhpur which is used in construction

tourist 

this is a popular destination for tourism, camel safaris from jaisalmer are popualr with wealthy indinas and foreigners, there is also a 3 day festival which includes food and accomodation 

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limitations of the opportunities

mining 

non renewable coal is bad for the environment due to the fossil fuels7

tourism 

leakage of money from all inclusive holidays, pollution and litter

agriculture

leads to salinisation 

solar energy

its expensive but will last in the long term

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challenges for development

innacesability - as tarmac  gets melted and sand storms cover the roads, the trucks sink in the sand and large areas get isolated and the only source of transport is overladen public buses, 

extreme temperatures 

it can reach over 50 degrees and the working condition can get harsh for farmers, the high rates of evaporation can lead to water shortages and farm animals need shade and water from the heat 

water insecurity 

there is intermittent rainfall and drinking water for animals is short in supply, water can be pumped from aquifers but are often salty and poor quality 

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the indira ghandi canal

the main form of irrigation in the desert in the indira ghandi canal as its a sourceof fresh water 

it provides water for commercial farming to grow things such as wheat, cotton, not only to be used for themselves but also to be sold on to earn money. 

it also provides drinking water used for people and animals, 

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causes for desertification

desertification is where once productive land, gradually changes into a desert like landscape, it usually occurs on the edges of existing deserts salinisation where water in soil evaporates in high temperatures, drawing salts from the soil to the surface, these salts are too toxic to many plants and make the land unusable, leadin to low yields, poor profits and starvation .

natural causes are: 

climate change whic leads to less rainfall  and stripped soil. this leads to more surface runoff and less infiltration blowing away soil more easily. it also leads to water flow washig soil nutrients away.  this therefore leads to fewer plants growing and less farming

human causes:

poverty menas they cant afford fertilisers and overuse the soil. it alos is from agriculture wehre soil becomes dusty, they both lead to soil erosion leading to desertification. 

population increase lead to more fuelwood and food needed, this means deforestation and the lack of roots of crops

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appropriate technology

magic stones -   they are similar to terrace stones and are placed along contours, the topoil can easily be washed away passed the stones, water infiltrates instead of running over the surface.  they are cheap to build and only require man power. 

tree planting -  as trees grow their roots bind the soil together and reduce erosion. the leaves provide ahde and intercept water, trees also protect against wind erosion 

national parks -  they create rules and regulations to restrict the use of the area, its stops intensive use of land leading to overgrazing 

susuatinable irrigation -  by using efficient types of irrigation such as furrow and drip, it reduces the amount of water draining away.  overirrigation cna lead to water logging and hgih amounts of evaporation meaning crops cant grow due to salizination. it allows unusable land to be used for farming and helps provide incoes for local people. 

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