AO1 1 Chromosomes
- 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell.
- XX = female XY = male
- Hormones cause changes to the individuals internal and external genitalia
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AO1 2 Devlopment
- everyones starts with the same female genitalia.
- 3 months, if male, testes produce testosterone which causes male genitalia to develop.
- Baby is labelled as a boy or girl at birth creating their gender identity.
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AO1 3 Brain development
- Geschwind and Galaburda - male hormones create a masculine brain
- Baron Cohen:
- Girls = understand how people think and feel
- Boys = better at categorising and understanding systems.
- Animal studies have shown female monkeys deliberately exposed to testosterone display more masculine behaviour, e.g. aggressiveness, more rough and tumble play.(Quadagno)
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AO2 1 Biological sex
- Biological sex is not the main factor.
- Money and Ehrhardt - sex of rearing is more important in determining gender identity. As long as it is done before 3 y/o
- David/Bruce/Brenda Reimer
- born a male
- penis accidentally removed during suregery when infant
- Bruce's parents raised him as Brenda
- Money claimed this was successful
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AO2 2 Contradictory evidence
- Diamond and Sigmundson
- revealed Brenda's unhappiness as a girl and decision in adolescence to become a boy.
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AO2 3 Further support
- Reiner and Gearhart
- 16 genetic males born with almost no penis
- 14 raised as females
- By adolescense 8 had decided to re assign themselves as males
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IDA 1 Determenistic
- Assumption it is biology alone is deterministic
- Socialisation matters too
- Dessens et al studied 250 cases where individuals were typed as females at birth and found 95% were content with their role, despite prenatal exposure to male hormones.
- Further 33 patients were typed as males, 12 experienced serious gender problems.
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IDA 2 Olympics
- Genetic sex was the determining factor for athletes as whether they compete as male or female since 1960s.
- In 1991 new ruling meant genetics was no longer the decisive factor
- individuals such as males were only excluded from events if they appeared obviously male
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AO2 4 Methodological issues - case studies
- Case studies of individuals with unique characteristics
- Each individual has a special set of circumstances e.g. the amount of testosterone exposure, gender role model availablity etc.
- Cannot generalise
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AO2 5 Methodological issues - abnormal individuals
- much research involves abnormal individuals - intersexes
- may be more vunerable to social influences because their biological ambiguities mean they have to search for clues to their identity.
- Threatens the extent to which findings can be generalised.
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