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Osmoregulation

Water is taken into the body through food and drink.

It leaves the body in the following ways:

  • 1) Through skin as SWEAT
  • 2) Via the lungs as BREATH
  • 3) Via the kidneys as URINE

HOT DAY or EXERCISING

  • Sweat a lot
  • Produce less urine to conseve water but it is concentrated so darker in colour
  • Lose more water through your breath when exercising

COLD DAY or NOT EXERCISING

  • Don't sweat as much
  • Produce more urine, which will be pale because the waste in the urine has become more diluted
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Thermoregulation

WHEN YOU'RE TOO HOT

  • Lots of sweat is produced - when it evapourates, it transfers heat from your skin to the environment, cooling you down
  • VASODILATION - blood vessels close to the surface of the skin widen. This allows more blood to flow to the surface so it can radiate heat out into the surroundings.
  • Hairs lie flat

WHEN YOU'RE TOO COLD

  • Very little sweat is produced
  • VASOCONSTRICTION - blood vessels close to the surface of the skin constrict so less heat can be transferred from the blood to the surroundings
  • Hairs stand on end to trap an insulating layer of air to keep you warm
  • You shiver and the movement generates heat in your muscles. Exercise does the same.
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