Home economics- Micro nutrients

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Calcium functions

  1. Formation and development of bones and teeth.
  2. Important in bone growth and maintenance.
  3. Calcium phosphate gives hardness and strength to bones and teeth.
  4. Essential factors of the clotting of blood.
  5. Important for the functioning of muscles and nerves.
  6. Responsible for activity of important enzymes.


  • Milk and dairy products e.g. yoghurt, cheese.
  • Calcium carbonate is added to flour by law.
  • Small fish e.g. sardines, pilchards.
  • Cereals and cereal products.
  • Dried figs, nuts, parsley, watercress, treacle.
  • Hard water
  • Fruit and vegetables
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Calcium continued

Calcium deficiency

  • Severe deficiency causes stunted growth and rickets in children, osteomalaicia in adults.
  • Osteoporosis occurs mostly in older women after the menopause and it is when calcium is gradually lost from the bones and they become porous and can fracture easily.
  • Muscles and nerves which do not form properly can result in a condition known as tetany.


Unlikely as excess is excreted


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Magnesium functions

  • formation of bones and teeth.
  • For the functioning of some enzymes
  • Helps to synthesis protein
  • Helps with the production of energy
  • Plays an important role in many bodily functions e.g. muscle contraction
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