Hitlers Germany 1929 -1939

Hitlers Rise To Power

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Background Information Part 1

1924:

The Dawes plan allows Germany longer to pay reparations and gave them 800M Gold Marks.

Germany flourished economically and culturally

October 1929 :

Gustav Stresseman died

Germany was badly hit by the Wall St crash as they had borrowed money from america.

Trade grounded to a halt, buisnesses closed, jobs were lost, germany slumped into depression

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Background Information Part 2

Many unemployed people turned tot he communists who increased their seats in the parliment (Reichstag)

The Nazi party grew quickly though supported by the middle class who had suffered the most and feared communism.

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What did the Weimar Government do?

In 1931 the new chancellor Bruning introduced a series of measures to help.

He raised taxes to cover the short fall in government revenue (income)

The companies and buisnesses being taxed got into more diffculties and the depression got worse

He reduced unemployment benefits and wages of government officials

People had less money to buy things, demand fell and the depression got worse.

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Effect on the Government

Weimar government was a coalition of parties, some large some small but no one had total power

Parties withdraw from the coalition causing the government to collapse.

None of the parties could agree enough to form a government

The President Hindenburg used his emergency powers and under Article 48 he ruled under emergency decree (he didnt like the government anyway)

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The Nazis and the Depression

In times of national crisis and hardship, people naturally want to blame someone. Who did the Germans blame?

The treaty of versailles and reparations which made GErmany weak.

The new democracy of a Weimar government.

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The Extreme Parties - Nazis and Communists - Part

Nazis & the Depression

The Nazis offered:

- Jobs for the unemployed in the state finances public works program.

- Help farmers and shopkeepers

- Help for employers to keep their profits

- To make Germany great again

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The Extreme Parties - Nazis and Communists - Part

Party Organisation

Well organised and disciplined

Appealed to middle classes

Joseph Goebbels ran 'Hitler over Germany campaign' flying him from one mass rally to another

Assisted by a poster campaign, showing Hitler as a strong leade to lead Germany.

Supported by large industries

Alfred Krupp (owner of Krupp steel and armament factories)

Henry Ford (U.S motor manufacturer) who saw the Nazis preventing Communist spread.

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The SA

By 1933 there were half- a million Nazi Storm troopers

Motto was 'All opposition must be stomped to the ground'

Beat up Nazi Opponents (Especially communists in street clashes)

Hitler complained of the violence and promised to improve law and order.

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How and why was hitler able to become Chancellor o

The Nazis offered :Employment, Food and a strong Germany

other parties offered weak leadership, no answers for the problems of the depression and had the shame of the versailes treaty to answer for.

Elections in 1930 and 1932

Their were elections in 1930 and 1932 (July and november)

As unemployment rose, so did the size of the Nazi vote, peaking at 230 seats (biggest party) in the Reichstag.

Nazi support fell back to 196 seats (still biggest party) in November 1932

there was lots of elections (4 in 4 years)

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19 vs 13

In apri1932 Hitler stood in the elections for president for Germany

Hindenburg won 19 million votes to 13 million

this tells us although hitler lost he had lots of supporters and a good influence

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A Series of Chancellors Part 1

Bruning- 1932

In june 1932 Hindenburg forces Bruning to resign as he doesnt have the support of the Reichstag

Hitler had the support as he has most of the seats in the Reichstag

Franz Von Papen - 1932

Hindenburg refuses to appoint hitler chancellor as he despises him and uses his emegency powers to appoint Von Papen

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A Series of Chancellors Part 2

Von Schleicher-1932

Von Schleicher tells Hindenburg that the army opposes Von Papen and wont support him. December 1932 Hindenburg appoints Von Schleicher as chancellor without enough support he resigns after 8 weeks.

Hitler- 1933

Hindenburg realises the Nazis are the largest party in the Reichstag

If the Nazis join his Government hitler can be Vice-Chancellor, he refused the offer

30th January 1933

Hitler can be  Chancellor but Von Papen can be Vice-Chancellor and his supporters can control Hitler, Hitler Agrees

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How Hitler turend Germany from a Democracy to a di

Reichstag Fire:

27 Febuary 1933

Marinus Van Der Lubbe, a dutch communist was thought to have comitted arson.

Some people think that the Nazis set it on fire as it benefitted the Nazis

Marinus Van Der Lubbe was executed

Emergency Decree, law for the protection of people and all the state was placed into action.

Ended all freedom and gave policeall control, it was signed by Hindenburg and the main targets of police were Communists and other opposition.

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1933 Elections

Mass rallies, torch light parades and radio broadcasts

March 1933

44% of voters voted for the Nazis who won 288 seats

Nationalists party supported the Nazis (52 seats)

Majority of the 647 deputies in the Reichstag (It was not a major fire)

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Enabling law

Allowed Hitler to make laws without consulting the Reichstag and approval of the president.

Although had to be approved of by 2/3 of the Reichstag.

Hitler banned the 81 Communist member from using their emergency powers under the law of the protection of the people and the state.

Hitler used the SA to threaten members of the next largest party (Social Democrats)

The approval of the enabling law was 444 votes to 94 votes

Afterwwards the Reichstag didnt meet often, usually to hear Hitler's speeches. In new elections in november only Nazis were allowed to stand.

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