Background Information Part 1
The Dawes plan allows Germany longer to pay reparations and gave them 800M Gold Marks.
Germany flourished economically and culturally
October 1929 :
Gustav Stresseman died
Germany was badly hit by the Wall St crash as they had borrowed money from america.
Trade grounded to a halt, buisnesses closed, jobs were lost, germany slumped into depression
Background Information Part 2
Many unemployed people turned tot he communists who increased their seats in the parliment (Reichstag)
The Nazi party grew quickly though supported by the middle class who had suffered the most and feared communism.
What did the Weimar Government do?
In 1931 the new chancellor Bruning introduced a series of measures to help.
He raised taxes to cover the short fall in government revenue (income)
The companies and buisnesses being taxed got into more diffculties and the depression got worse
He reduced unemployment benefits and wages of government officials
People had less money to buy things, demand fell and the depression got worse.
Effect on the Government
Weimar government was a coalition of parties, some large some small but no one had total power
Parties withdraw from the coalition causing the government to collapse.
None of the parties could agree enough to form a government
The President Hindenburg used his emergency powers and under Article 48 he ruled under emergency decree (he didnt like the government anyway)
The Nazis and the Depression
In times of national crisis and hardship, people naturally want to blame someone. Who did the Germans blame?
The treaty of versailles and reparations which made GErmany weak.
The new democracy of a Weimar government.
The Extreme Parties - Nazis and Communists - Part
Nazis & the Depression
The Nazis offered:
- Jobs for the unemployed in the state finances public works program.
- Help farmers and shopkeepers
- Help for employers to keep their profits
- To make Germany great again
The Extreme Parties - Nazis and Communists - Part
Well organised and disciplined
Appealed to middle classes
Joseph Goebbels ran 'Hitler over Germany campaign' flying him from one mass rally to another
Assisted by a poster campaign, showing Hitler as a strong leade to lead Germany.
Supported by large industries
Alfred Krupp (owner of Krupp steel and armament factories)
Henry Ford (U.S motor manufacturer) who saw the Nazis preventing Communist spread.
By 1933 there were half- a million Nazi Storm troopers
Motto was 'All opposition must be stomped to the ground'
Beat up Nazi Opponents (Especially communists in street clashes)
Hitler complained of the violence and promised to improve law and order.
How and why was hitler able to become Chancellor o
The Nazis offered :Employment, Food and a strong Germany
other parties offered weak leadership, no answers for the problems of the depression and had the shame of the versailes treaty to answer for.
Elections in 1930 and 1932
Their were elections in 1930 and 1932 (July and november)
As unemployment rose, so did the size of the Nazi vote, peaking at 230 seats (biggest party) in the Reichstag.
Nazi support fell back to 196 seats (still biggest party) in November 1932
there was lots of elections (4 in 4 years)
19 vs 13
In apri1932 Hitler stood in the elections for president for Germany
Hindenburg won 19 million votes to 13 million
this tells us although hitler lost he had lots of supporters and a good influence
A Series of Chancellors Part 1
In june 1932 Hindenburg forces Bruning to resign as he doesnt have the support of the Reichstag
Hitler had the support as he has most of the seats in the Reichstag
Franz Von Papen - 1932
Hindenburg refuses to appoint hitler chancellor as he despises him and uses his emegency powers to appoint Von Papen
A Series of Chancellors Part 2
Von Schleicher tells Hindenburg that the army opposes Von Papen and wont support him. December 1932 Hindenburg appoints Von Schleicher as chancellor without enough support he resigns after 8 weeks.
Hindenburg realises the Nazis are the largest party in the Reichstag
If the Nazis join his Government hitler can be Vice-Chancellor, he refused the offer
30th January 1933
Hitler can be Chancellor but Von Papen can be Vice-Chancellor and his supporters can control Hitler, Hitler Agrees
How Hitler turend Germany from a Democracy to a di
27 Febuary 1933
Marinus Van Der Lubbe, a dutch communist was thought to have comitted arson.
Some people think that the Nazis set it on fire as it benefitted the Nazis
Marinus Van Der Lubbe was executed
Emergency Decree, law for the protection of people and all the state was placed into action.
Ended all freedom and gave policeall control, it was signed by Hindenburg and the main targets of police were Communists and other opposition.
Mass rallies, torch light parades and radio broadcasts
44% of voters voted for the Nazis who won 288 seats
Nationalists party supported the Nazis (52 seats)
Majority of the 647 deputies in the Reichstag (It was not a major fire)
Allowed Hitler to make laws without consulting the Reichstag and approval of the president.
Although had to be approved of by 2/3 of the Reichstag.
Hitler banned the 81 Communist member from using their emergency powers under the law of the protection of the people and the state.
Hitler used the SA to threaten members of the next largest party (Social Democrats)
The approval of the enabling law was 444 votes to 94 votes
Afterwwards the Reichstag didnt meet often, usually to hear Hitler's speeches. In new elections in november only Nazis were allowed to stand.