Hitler overturns apeasement

  • czechoslovakia 1938
  • Munich, september 1938
  • occupation of czechoslovakia, march 1939
  • nazi-soviet pact
  • attack on poland
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Czochoslovakia 1938

  • Large army, and strong military defences in the Sudetenland.
  • Hitler wanted it as part of his lebensraum.
  • detested it as it was a democracy.
  • consisted of czechs, slovaks, and three million german speakers. Most of the germans lived in the sudetenland, and Hitler urged the Czech nazi party leader, Konrad Henlein, to demand concessions for the sudeten germans. 
  • This however was not enough, he wanted the whole of the Sudetenland, and April 1938, he massed his troops around the border, but the president, Edvard Benes mobilised his troopss to resist them.
  • Chamberlain, the prime minister of Great Britain, met with Hitler in Berchtesgaden on 15 september 1938 to discuss his accions. He persuaded Czechoslovakia to give germany parts of the sudetenland where the majority of germans lived.
  • They met again on 22 september 1938 at Godesberg, and Hitler wnted more. Chamberlain refused to agree.
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Munich, september 1938

  • war seemed inevitable, but mussolini persuaded hitler to come to a four-power conference in munich 29 september.
  • Hitler (germany) Chamberlain (Britain), Edouard Deladier(France) and Mussolini (italy) attended. Czechoslovakia was not invited.
  • they all agreed Germany shall have the sudetenland and it was occupied on the 1 october.
  • Chamberlain signed a separate deal with Hitler where they agreed to consult eachother with any problems and never go to war with one another.
  • Chamberlain returned a hero
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Occupation of Czechoslovakia

The munich agreement had weakened czechoslovakia

  • it had lost if defence system
  • key industrial areas.
  • territory to poland in october 1938 and to hungary in november.
  • actions towards the sudeten germans has made other nationalities jealous.
  • 1939Slovaks demanded rights, Emil Hacha appealed to hitler for help.
  • In the end, he had to invite hitler in to put the riots down, but on the 15 march 1939, he took over instead.
  • This was not oppsed by Br and Fr as he was invited in by czechoslovakian government.
  • this marked the end of appeasement, Chamberlain had a chane of heart towards hitler. He had broken his promise.
  • Britain introduced conscription for the first time during peace time.
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The nazi-soviet pact

  • in April 1939, Britain and France promised to help poland if they are attacked by germany.
  • however, they knew they would not be able to keep this promise, only the Soviet Union could fulfill this pledge.
  • Britain and USSr had discussed making an alliance throughut the summer of 1939, but nothing came of. Britain dislike their communism and delayed this agreement for as long as they could. 
  • USSR grew tired of waiting, and sudenyl sined the Nazi-soviet pact on 23 aughust 1939.
  • The shock of the world, they all knew it would not last, they HATED eachother- but they each had their reasons;
  • Soviet leader, stalin, lost patience with the British.
  • suspected GB and Fr were trying to direct hitlers attentions towards him
  • He gained half of poland, but also time re-arm against the germans inevitable attack.
  • This brought war closer, they agreed to invade poland together.
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Attack on Poland

  • 1 september 1939- germany invades poland, chamberlain tries to persuade him otherwise, but he is ignored.
  • 3 september, Britain declare war on Germany, followed by France.
  • 17 september, Soviet Union invade eastern poland, it was defeated within weaks, and Britains was found powerless to defend.
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