Economic Crises of 1923:
Occupation of the Ruhr- Germany couldn't pay reparations, French marched into Ruhr to seize goods to make up for payments, German workers did passive resistance, this prevented French from getting stuff but made Germany poorer because production stopped. French stayed despite this.
Hyperinflation- passive resistance led to economic problems, already in bad situation due to war, govt printed more notes to cope but this causes inflation, prices rose dramtically so savings became worthless, people were poorer because wages did not rise with prices.
How well was this dealt?: Occupation of Ruhr
Good- Stresemann called of passive resistance, he agreed to pay reparations again if the Allies would help. Plans introduced; Dawes (1924) longer payment time and U.S loans, Young (1929) lowered reparations.
Bad- right wing people thought that Stresemann had given in to France and this showed a weak govt, Germans hated Dawes and Young because they didn't want to pay reparations.
Good- Stresemann made temp currency, govt strictly limited number of notes in circulation, permanent currency introduced.
Bad- Germans bitter about hyperinflation, people who lost savings were not compensated so felt cheated and blamed govt.
Munich Putsch 1923:
How influential were the Nazis; + spreading from Bavaria, govt scared of them, 3000 members, Nazi paper. - too extremist, fairly focused in Bavaria, not large on national scale. A bit influential as beginning to grow but not large on a National Scale.
Why attempt the Putsch: Hitler was angry that passive resitance was called off and that reparations were being paid again. This made the WG look weak. Hitler also thought he had support from; right wing groups/extremists, the army and the Bavarian State govt.
Plan, Part 1 8th Nov 1923: get head of Bavarian govt on side (Kahr), met at beer hall, surrounded with SA, Hitler caused disturbance and said National Rev had started. Then ordered officials into side room and offered them jobs in his 'new govt' but did not convince them. Hitler made speech to crowd in hall, Lundendorf arrives and his presence covinces others to agree with Hitler. All swore to loyalty but did not keep their promises.
Part 1 went badly because the officials went back on their promises and the leaders did not support Hitler BUT may have gained support of people in beer hall.
Part 2 9th Nov 1923: News of revolution reached Berlin and WG ordered army to stop it, Kahr did nothing to stop WG. Hitler went ahead and marched to Munich. Met by police and army and some Nazis were shot, Hitler and Ludendorff were arrested.
Part 2 was a complete failure as the army controlled the Nazis easily and some were killed.
Why it failed; Hitler lost nerve and called surrender, failed to get support of main Bavarian officials, Nazis weren't ready to launch revolution, overestimated support he would get from public, army remained loyal to WG because govt. deposed 2 left-wing state govt. which pleased them.
Did Munich Putsch have a positive impact on the Nazi party;
YES; got Hitler attention/ good propaganda, learnt to use different tactics to gain power from the mistakes (political rather than violence), Hitler got a lenient prison sentence, trial gave him national platform, impressed German people, showed Hitler as a leader, success in elections following Putsch 32 seats.
NO; both parts of plan failed, 16 Nazis killed, left without leader, party banned after Putsch, immediate glory ended in later months.
How successful were the Nazis from 1924-9;
Party Organisation- recruitment drives to encourage people to join, set up Hitler Youth, set up network of local Nazi parties, enlarged the SA and set up SS, appointed Joseph Goebbels to take charge of propaganda.
Focusing their message- tried to appeal to workers but after 1928 elections they looked elsewhere because only got 12 seats. Found that workers supported Social Democrats/Communists. Then targetted farmers and middle-class, made promises to help farmers and praised them to get their votes.
Success- Membership rose to 100,000 by 1928, no breakthrough in elections, still minority party with less than 3% and less seats than Communists. Shows that WG were strong and had public support.
How well were the WG doing by 1929;
Economy GOOD THINGS; Dawes Plan 1924 spread reparation payments over a longer time and loans from US came which helped industry and trade recover, by 1928 German industrial production reacehd pre-war levels, exports increased and so did employment levels
Economy BAD THINGS; reliance on US loans, some people lost out for example farmers because there was less demand for their produce, small businesses lost livelihoods.
Politics GOOD THINGS; Parties that supported WG did well, Extremist parties did less well.
Politics BAD THINGS; Extremists were building up party organisations, situation was not completely stable, 4 chancellors in 5 years and about 30% of vote went to parties opposing WG. President Hindenburg opposed democracy.
Foreign Policy GOOD THINGS; Locarno Treaty 1925 Germany accepted borders and left Rhineland demilitarised. League of Nations 1926 once part of Stresemann started to revise the Treaty of V focusing on reparations. Led to Young Plan (1929) which cut payments down.
Foreign Policy BAD THINGS; Nationalists criticised because they didn't want to accept the Treaty
Impact of Wall Street Crash on Germany;
Wall Street Crash in US -->World Trade declined -->German exports declined
--> US recalled loans --> German industry badly affected
Then German industries and businesses went bust --> severe unemployment --> Great Depression began
Effect on WG- govt looked weak and didn't cope well, no ideas and scared of hyperinflation happening again. Cut wages and benefits, provided no support for public.
Weimar Constitution not working, coaliton collapsed and fell back on Article 48 which gave all power to Hindenburg.
People looked to Extremists. Communists and Nazis argued and found groups to blame saying that they could do a better job than WC.
Impact on Germany- poverty, WG weakened, starvation, homelessness, farmers in debt, businesses closed, unemployment (50% young, 60% graduates, nearly 6 mil in 1932, 40% factory workers), benefits cut, DESPERATION.
Why did the Nazis become more successful in elections;
Organisation- well organised party, local parties motivated and well trained, skilled leaders. SUCCESS because message was spread all over Germany and most organised of parties.
Propaganda- trained local groups, range of methods such as posters/rallies/parades, stirred up violence so SA could be seen to be dealing with 'Communist threat'. SUCCESS because it raised profile/awareness and increased popularity.
Support of Industrialists- powerful industrialists switched support to Nazis, gave them financial backing. SUCCESS because they had money to spend and increased credibility.
Use of Technology- spread propaganda with tech, radio used, planes flew Hitler around Germany. SUCCESS because modern ideas attracted support.
Promises and Flexibility- made promises people wanted to hear and kept them vague, workers promised jobs, employers greater profits. SUCCESS because vagueness allows change, made it hard to disagree with Nazis and people believed Nazis could help them.
Hitler- portayed as superman, developed speech skills, campaigns on his skills and personality. SUCCESS because supporters saw him as leader and a man who could save Germany.
Weakness of Opposition- other parties weak, underestimated Nazis, they quarelled rather than all going against Nazis. SUCCESS because left door open for Nazis, gave an opportunity to strike.
Why was Hitler invited to become Chancellor?;
July 1932- Nazis gots 37% of vote so Hitler demanded to be chancellor, Hindenburg refused and appointed VP. Hitler didn't cooperate and VP lost support in Reichstag. Another election had to be called.
Nov 1932- Election Naziv votes decreased to 33% because of SA thuggery this concerned Nazis BUT VP and Vs fell out.
Dec 1932- Hindenburg appointed VS as Chancellor
Jan 1933- VP agreed to cooperate with Hitler to regain power, VS lost support in Reichstag forcing Hindenburg to appoint Hitler.
Why did Hitler become Chancellor in 1933?;
The Depression helped because- gives opportunity to attack WG because they did nothing and lets Hitler make promises to help Germany.
Collapse of WG helped because- public angry with WG so turn to extremists, showed flaws in WG which Nazis used, more elections give them chances.
Fear of Communism helped because- got support of people who were scared such as businessmen who also gave money to fund campaigns, negative cohesion: didn't love Hitler but disliked other options.
Election Campaigns helped because- increased popularity and support, appealed to wide range, vague message=no criticism, tech made them look modern and capable.
Party Organisation helped because- better propaganda meant more votes, people wanted order and that's what the Nazis showed and offered.
Hitler helped because- he was shown as a leader which is what was needed and a man of the people who understood problems and how to solve them.
Actions of VP and VS helped because- VP persuaded Hindenburg to make Hitler Chancellor formally and legally, Hindenburg had no choice but to do it.
What weakens Hitler's position- Hindenburg was President with Article 48, not many Nazis in cabinet, no overall majority, no control of army, social democrats had 121 seats, WC in place so public had freedom
Steps to take- gain majority in Reichstag, overthrow WC, get rid of opposition parties, get control of German people, get control of army, ensure Nazis are loyal.
Importance of Reichstag Fire;
WAS IMPORTANT- meant that Communists lost support and were blamed so less likely to get votes, enabled Hitler to pass decree for protection of people and state which gave total control over opponents and made Germany a dictatorship. Hitler could suggest that the Communists threatened Germany and that serious measures were needed.
WASN'T IMPORTANT- Increased support in 1933 but still wasn't majority, other factors helpes such as SA violence and Hindenburg's failure to stop Hitler.
Hitler's Path to Dictatorship: Made Chancellor in Jan 1933 -->
Called an election for March to try and gain a majority vote -->
Hitler passed Decree that allowed SA to break up other parties meetings, killed 50 opponents -->
Reichstag Fire Feb 1933, Communist plot carried out by Van der Lubbe, 4000 Communists arrested, Nazis made anti-communist campaign -->
Passed Emergency Decree for Protection of People and the State, took away all democratic rights and destroyed WC -->
5 March 1933 Elections, best Nazi result 43%, not majority -->
Communists banned from Reichstag, Hitler wanted support for Enabling Act to increase power further, enabled laws to be passed without going through Reichstag. Communists banned so that Enabling Act would go through -->
Enabling Act passed 24 March 1933, made Germany dictatorship -->
2 May 1933, Trade Unions banned so can't threaten Nazi power -->
July 1933, All parties banned, Nazis the only party -->
29 August 1934, Night of Long Knives, concerned about power of SA, wanted support of army, called together SA leaders and executed Rohm. Army swore oath to Hitler -->
2 August 1934, Hindenburg died and Hitler maded himself President.
Night of Long Knives;
SA FOR- Rohm old friend of Hitler, SA had 2.5 mil men, helped Hitler in Muncih Putsch so very loyal Nazis.
SA AGAINST- Disliked by some Nazi leaders, becoming out of control, too powerful, different policies and aims, army dislike SA.
ARMY FOR- organised and disciplined, only group more powerful than Hitler, army needed to go against Treaty of V, had support of businesses
ARMY AGAINST- only 100,000 men, unsure about loyalty, some disliked Hitler and Rohm
Hitler decided to go with the Army because he needed them and Rohm was a threat. He found evidence that Rohm was unloyal and had him executed, the army then swore an oath of loyalty to Hitler. This gave Hitler control of the army so more power over Germany too.
How Hitler increased control over Germany from 1933-34;
Tried to gain an overall majority in the Reichstag by calling election and banning other political meetings/parties.
Overthrew the constitution with Decree for Protection of People and the State and the Enabling Act.
He removed opposition and threats with Reichstag Fire (Communists), by banning political parties and trade unions and the Night of Long Knives (Rohm and SS).
Death of Hindenburg, Hitler declared himself President and head of armed forces, army swore an oath to Hitler.
How Hilter dictated;
Propaganda suggested he was hardworking and in control but
-he spent little time working each day
-he was hard to contact
-he disliked making decisions
-he was influenced by his closest advisers
-he disliked paperwork
-he opted out of day to day running of the govt.
Nazi regime was not efficient but chaotic, improvised and inconsistent at a local level.
Organisations that played a part in the govt of Germany;
Nazi Party Organisations, Govt ministries, the army, big businesses, local Nazi party leaders and the SS.
A strong Germany- build up a strong army to overturn Treaty of Versaille and create a thriving economy.
A racial Germany- pure, anti-Jewish
The Volk (People's Community)- people to see their contribution to Germany as more important than their own lives.
How Germany became a One-party State; Dealing with the Communists- made a list of leading Communists, addresses and workplaces, after Reichstag Fire 4000 were found easily and arrested. Communists were put in camps, questioned, tortured or executed. (preventative detention to protect Germany)
Enabling Act- Hitler could make any laws without Reichstag's agreement, this reduced other parties power. Social Democrats were called Communists and treated in the same way following this act.
Camps were set up to imprison any opponent of the Nazi regime. Hitler banned politcal parties in 1934, only Nazi party existed. Other political organisations banned such as Trade Unions.
Little politcal resistance for next 4 years, politicians were imprisoned, fled or operated in secret.
Police State SS; SS was a large organisation with many different sections that monitored, punished and frightened Geman people. General SS were responsible for security, Waffen SS were military units, Death's Head ran concentration camps. Helped keep control because people were scared of them and the Nazi regime seemed inescapable.
The Gestapo (secret police) had a lot of power to stop any opponents of Hitler. They spied on people, tapped phones, opened mail, arrested and sent to camps without trial, used torture to extract info and confessions, made a network of informers (ordinary people encouraged to denounce or snitch). Gestapo helped keep control because they were feared and people were scared to trust anyone or raise their views.
Police and Courts were controlled by the SS and top jobs were given to Nazis. Nazis controlled magistrates, judges and courts. Judges took oath of loyalty to Hitler. 1934 People's Court set up to try people for crimes against the state. From 1934-9534 people were executed (telling anti Nazi jokes, listening to foreign radio were reasons to be killed). No fair trials for opponents of the Nazis. Helped keep control becuase trials were unfair and any opposition was controlled easily.
Concentration Camps used as punishment and run by SS. Socialists, Communsits, unionists, churchmen and Jews and any other opponents/critics were sent there. There they were questioned, tortued and reeducated. Forced to do hard labour and used as slaves. Little food available and regular beatings/executions. Helped as all opposition were removed from society and it deters public from going against Nazis.
Goebbels was the Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda. His problems were- RADIO wanted one Nazi station not many and lots didn't have radios because of price. FESTIVALS didn't know what to celebrate. FILMS political propaganda films were boring and Germans were used to good quality cinema. NEWSPAPERS there were too many wanted some big Nazi papers. ARTWORK wasn't approved as gave wrong message.
What did Goebbels do?
RADIO-formed Reich Radio Company (national radio), made cheap radio stations 'People's Reciever' 70% had them, 6000 speakers in streets, radio wardens encouraged listeners. Kept Nazi control as message was inescapable .
FESTIVALS- new important days created e.g Hitler's birthday. seizing of power, founding of party, Nurumberg Rally. Kept control as it creates Nazi mythology, makes Nazi history look glamorous and impressive.
FILMS- High quality political films made 'Olympiade' 'The triumph of Will' and 'Jud Suss'. Newsreels with nazi message played before film. Kept control because it ensures Nazi message is known and keeps people going to the cinema.
PAPERS and BOOKS- Press Chamber told journalists what to write and what angle to take, Goebbels took control of publishers, all anti-Nazi papers closed, cut to 1000 daily papers from 4700, papers publicly displayed. Books banned and removed from libraries, book burnings arranged, all new books were censored, writing on race, war and Nazis was encouraged.
ARTWORK- MUSIC, guide lines for what was acceptable (German, folk, marching or classical), no jazz as seen as racially inferior. THEATRE, concentated on German history and politics, cheap tickets given but could not choose what to see. All artists made to join Chamber of Culture to work which was controlled by Goebbels. This kept contol because it emphasised superiority of Nazi race and stopped critics through art.
Other propaganda methods were used to help promote the Nazi message such as;
Posters kept people loyal because they promoted message and made Nazis look good. Berlin Games kept them loyal as people were proud to be German as they looked modern and successful. Architecture and Art remained true to Nazi policy and Aryan race so kept loyalties. Images of Hitler portrayed him as a leader and saviour.
Nazis and Opposition; Why so little before 1933- People were happy with the Nazis- industrial recovery, better employment, better than the Depression, seemed modern.
Many had voted for them (288 seats, 43%) so couldn't really oppose
They were scared to oppose them- execuctions, conc camps
Propganada and censorship- meant that people didn't know what was going on, extreme policies were kept secret
No formal opposition- parties had been banned in 1933, other opposition didn't trust or cooperate with each other
The Nazis were too powerful to stop with opposition, the public were naive so didn't question the Nazis, Criticisms were minor and unpopular policies were dropped.
How much opposition was there? Attempted coup d'etat (killing or getting rid of Hitler)- none in first 10 years of Nazi rule, only seen in last years of war
Underground resistance/open opposition- anti Nazi leaflets, sabotaged railways/factories/army depots, some acted as spies, church leaders criticized (euthanasia policy). Could be arrested and killed for this.
Passive resistance/non cooperation- refused to join the party, refused to give Heil Hitler salute, didn't contribute to Nazi funds, members of banned parties met in secret in 1930s.
Private Grumbling- ordinary Germans resented regime, block wardens seen as pests, support was false to keep jobs.
Opposition from the Church; Martin Niemoller, Protestant- disliked German Christians/Nazis. Formed alternative 'confessional church' and publicly criticized Nazis. He was put in a camp.
Paul Schnieder, Protestant- criticized in speeches, smuggled letters from camps for the Church. Sent to camp for 2 years and tortured.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Protestant- preached/published views against Nazis, campaigned against Nuremberg Laws. He was banned from preaching and his college was closed. Died in a camp.
Cardinal Galen, Catholic- revealed that Nazis were killing handicapped, led euthanasia campaign. Nazis killed priests close to him and he was spied on.
Josef Fath, Catholic- clashed with Nazi teachers and HJ leaders, put out Church flags.
Jehovah's Witnesses- stuck to their beliefs but put in camps where a third died.
Church opposition was not widespread as only from a few, it was easily dealt with by camps, only Galen more difficult to deal with.
War time Opposition; Edelweiss Pirates- opposed by going against HJ and beating up HJ patrols, delivered leaflets and gave shelter to army deserters during war. Slightly serious but on a small scale as killed only one Gestapo leader. Dealt with but put in camps, some were hung for killing leader.
White Rose Group- opposed with anti-Nazi leaflets. War was the reason they formed as Hans Scholl returned and disliked racism against Aryans that he saw. Not a serious threat because it was not wide spread and easily dealt with (beheaded).
Church opposition- Bonhoeffer opposed by forming Confessional Church and speaking out against Nuremberg Laws. War led him to join Abwehr which helped Jews escape (also plotted to overthrow Hitler). Fairly serious because church was influential and plotted against H directly but was controlled easily with camp.
Army opposition- Bomb Plot to assasinate Hitler, came from war as Von Stauffenburg disliked SS and being defeated. Very serious as they almost killed H. Dealt with by executions.
Dealing with the Churches 33-35; The Concordat 1933- Hitler not involved with Catholics, Pope not involved with politics.
Reich Church/German Christians- Nazi uniform, salutes, marches, adapted flag with swastika.
1935 Onwards; 1935 set up dep for Church affairs, 700 protestant minsters arrested.
1936- encouraged to not attend church schools/youth movements, catholic nuns and priests taken to court if they opposed Nazis.
1937- carols and nativities banned in schools. 1938- priests stop teaching r.e. 1939- all church schools abolished
Success in controlling Church;
SUCCESSFUL- agreements made (Concordat), dealt with opposing Church leaders (Martin Niemoller), separation of education and religion, faith movement was an alternative.
UNSUCCESSFUL- division on how to deal with Church, many opponents came from the Church (Galen),
Hitler Youth; 1920s- formed, 1933- encouraged to join, 1936- became compulsory 1933- 30%, 2 mil members 1939- 82%, 7.5 mil members
BOYS- Little Fellows --> German Young People --> Hitler Youth GIRLS- Young Maidens --> League of German Maidens
Why young wanted to be in HJ- everyone else was joining, new opportunities given (camping, holidays), liked the uniform, felt respected/important, liked being told they were superior, enjoyed sports/marches, children did not question it, not joining could affect future.
Opposition- some parents, Swing Youth and alternative groups.
Activities for Boys- military role; athletic tests, physical training, films about HJ heroes, war duties, learnt how to fight.
Activites for Girls- homemaker; wash and iron uniform, learnt how to look after themselves, marriage and motherhood.
Indoctrination- oath of loyalty, learnt Nazi policies, denounced, encouraged to join, meetings, learnt about war, listened to Nazi radio.
How did the HJ help Hitler; built up a strong next generation of loyal Nazis, created informants, military training for boys, mother and homemakes created, indoctrinated and brainwashed.
Why were some critical; bad effect on education, youth had no free time, too strict, order was exaggerated, too cruel.
Success of the HJ;
YES- young liked it, helped ensure loyalty, helped the Nazis prepare young people for the roles that were expected of them.
NO- unpopular with some parents, left little time for school work, some young disliked strict rules.
Nazis and Education
Curriculum; German/Nazi history taught, R.E dropped, P.E very important 15% of timetable, race study, party belief, Eugenics, Geog- lebensraum.
Curriculum focused on what the Nazis needed;
Sport prepares boys for war, Eugenics prepares for motherhood and emphasised racial ideas, race study, party beliefs install Nazis ideas in young and keep them loyal.
Schoolwork; indocrtinated pupils with exam questions, analysing Hitler's speeches. For example lunatic asylum costs 6 mil marks, how many 15,000 mark houses could be built with this- shows mentally ill as burden, underlying message of advantage of euthanasia.
Teachers; sacked teachers that did not support Nazis, set up teachers' camps to indoctrinate, teachers made to join Nazi Teachers' Association 97% did.
Leadership Schools; schools to prepare the best of Germany's children for leadership, made future political leaders.
SUCCESS; YES- some children liked, preferred to previous academic studies.NO- disliked sports, education downgraded, girls forced into domestic rule.
Women and the Nazis; wanted women to be mothers and have lots of Aryan children to create a pure race and to increase birth rate.
Ideal Nazi mother; stay at home, blonde, healthy, heavy hipped, no make up, full skirt, flat shoes, use leftovers, Eintoph meal, no smoking, bring kids up as loyal Nazis.
Policies towards women; Stop smoking and slimming and so sport. Mother cross to women with large families Gold=8 Silver=6 Bronze=4. Loans to brides who didn't work. Sacked women- 15% teachers, all doctors, all civil servants, gave males preference for new jobs. Propaganda encouraged motherhood and attendance of mothercraft/homecraft. Lebensborn programme- mothers donate babies to Hitler, impregnated by SS.
The policy changed because of war, neede womens' help to rearm Germany. Marriage loans were abolished and a compulosry duty year was introduced (helping on farms).
Success of dealing with women;
YES- women affected by Depression were better off by 1935, fairly good wages, many loyal Nazis felt safe under their rule, 'child money' good for family, 30% more births in 1936 than 1933, 800,00 brides took loans, hero worshipped Hitler.
NO- great pressure on women to have children (some kidnapped children), duty year was hard work, employment increased, hard to get women back because of poor wages and conditions.
Nazis and the Master Race; Herrenvolk-master race, Untermenschen- sub humans, Socially useful- people who contributed to society (work, motherhood, military). Burdens on society- work shy, disabled, mentally ill. Undesirables- alcoholics, prostitutes, homosexuals, gypsies.
STEP 1; propaganda campaign to create resentment against burdens on community---> STEP 2; Sterilisation Law 1933 certain people made infertile--> STEP 3; 1936 work shy and undesirables sent to camps--> STEP 4; 1936 secret extermination of disabled/mental with euthanasia.
Treatment of Jews; 1933 boycott of Jew shops, Jews sacked from govt work. 1934 anti Jew propaganda, banned from public places. 1935 Nuremberg Laws, Law for Protection of German Blood and Honour banned marriage between Jews and Aryans and Reich Citizenship Law made Jews subjects with little rights. 1936 lull due to Olympics. Jews banned from most professions. 1937 Hitler made public attack on Jews, businesses taken by Nazis. 1938 Jews register property to make confiscation easy, doctors, dentists and lawyers couldn't treat Aryans, letter J stamped on passports, only attend Jews schools, all businesses confiscated. Kristallnacht Nov 1938 Nazis smashed windows of Jewish shops, destroyed homes and burnt synagogues. 30,00 arrested and German public did not intervene. Jews fined one billion marks. 1939 all Jews changed names to Sarah and Israel, encouraged to emigrate.
Ghettos; 1940 Polish Jews put in ghettos, separated from society, little food and awful conditions so stravation and disease common. 500,000 died.
Einsatzgruppen; invasion of Russia 1941, mobile klling unit of SS, rounded up Jews, dug graves and shot them. Army nor locals protested and 2 mil were killed in total.
Gas Vans; policy of euthanasia used to kill Jews in Poland, killed 1000 a day.
The Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution; Nov 1941 conference to coordinate a European wide killing programme. Final Solution; comb out Jews, transport them to the East to work, those who couldn't work would be killed.
Death Camps; 1942 4 mil Jews taken there where they were mudered by being worked, starved, beaten, shot or gassed (Zyklon B).
The treatment of Jews became more methodical and systematic based on elimination. Started as social discrimination then violence then camps. It changed because attitudes to Jews across Europe, war and number of Jews, Wanssee and Final Solution, prepared to try new methods to become more efficient.
Nazis and the Economy;
Problems in 1933- high unemployment 6 mil, needed to rearm, needed to be more self sufficient and increase supply of raw materials but had little money for imports.
New Plan 1934-6 Hjalmar Schacht; limited imports, created trade agreements, increased unemployment with work projects. This saved economic crisis and unemployment but rearmament was not quick enough and world economy was improving any way.
4 Year Plan 1936-39 Herman Goering; increase production of raw and synthetic materials, reduce imports further, tighten prices/wages, new industrial plants. Good as it prepared country for war but Germany stilled relied on imports for 1/3 of raw materials and were forced to invade to improve this.
Job Creation Schemes- spent 37.1 billion marks, built motorways, Olympic stadiums, railways.
National Labour Service (RAD)- All men from 18-25 worked for 6 months on road and school building, removed people form unemployment figures.
Rearmament- created more jobs, billions spent on production of tanks etc.
SUCCESSES; Fewer unemployed 6 mil to under 1/2 mil but data not right because of invisible unemployed. Jews, women, other opposition, unmarried men. Rearmament happened quickly under 4 year plan and helped prepare for war but it created food shortages e.g butter. More self sufficient, a bit but 1/3 still imports and had to invade for raw materials and synthetics not as successful as hoped.
Impact of policies on German people;
Pay and hours of work- didn't earn more because real wages did not increase but hours did.
German Labour Front DAF- removed trade unions because they were powerful and could disrupt industry. Introduced to bring workers together
The DAF took on responsibility for workplace and wanted to boost productivity, made recommendations about wages and working conditions. Didn't benefit workers because it often favoured employers.
Strength through Joy KDF- provided workers with rewards like theatre tickets, benefit but quite small.
Beauty of Labour SdA- improved working conditions but wasn't a benefit because workers had to make improvements in their own time.
Volkswagon Scheme- workers paid weekly to get a car not a benefit though because no one received cars and no refunds given.
Farmers- GOOD debts written off, rises in prices helped them. BAD shortage of workers as they moved to towns for jobs.
Small businesses- GOOD influence of big businesses decreased as banned from expanding.
Big businesses- GOOD no worry of trade unions and strikes, rearmament led to growth and increased profits, avg salaries of managers increased by 70%. BAD some resented control on wages, imports, profits and raw materials.
Workers- GOOD given rewards for working, better conditions, wages rose. BAD real wages didn't increase, longer hours from 43 to 47 a week, KDF too exspenive, never got cars.
1918- Germany ruled by Kaiser who had total power, General Ludendorff and Hindenburg influential, Reichstag was German parliament but it was weak.
Germans were coping badly with war, starving because of naval blockade and angry about war. Demanded abdication of Kaiser and strikes and demonstrations were carried out.
The Kaiser abdicated because Ebert (leader of Social Democrats) and other politicians were worried about increasing violence. They announced his abdication and the Kaiser fled to Holland in Nov 1918, the Armistice was signed the next day.
This was important because
1. Germany became a republic. Ebert had an important position as the Chancellor and had to govern an unstable Germany.
2. Members of army said that they were on verge of winning war and that they had been stabbed in the back by the govt (November Criminals)
Why Germany were defeated; Naval blockade pressured end because people were starving, failure of final push in March, Allies counter attack was very strong, Kaiser fleeing, huge loss of men in March.
EFFECTS OF WWI ON GERMANY;
POLITICAL- previous problems got worse as Reichstag weakened further, concern about 2nd revolution, country was unstable and armed soliders that returned were joining in violence against the Kaiser, power vacuum created by Kaiser fleeing, people turned to extreme politics.
SOCIAL- big casaulties and were defeated, war experiences made Germans angry and this led to conflict as people looked for someone to blame.
ECONOMIC- Farming disrupted, starvation from naval blockade, weak conditions made civilians vulnerable to disease and 750,000 died.
Communists- wanted a workers revolution, equal share or wealth and land
Right wing- fascist belief, nationalistic ideas, believed that a good govt. needs a powerful leader.
Left wing- want the workers to have power and to share wealth equally
Who would govern after war; EITHER Germany would have a revolution and left wing would form a govt OR The Social Democrats would restore order and lead.
Left Wing Revolutionaries wanted a real social revolution and they thought that the SDs would not help the working class. The Spartacus League was the main group and Rosa Luxemburg led them.
SDs did not want a revolution and they thought that left wings went too far. The Freikorp were groups of ex soldiers.
Spartacist Uprising- 1919
Dec 1918; clashes between govt and revolutionaries
Jan 1919; some Spartacists staged an attempted revolution in Berlin against Ebert's government
5 Jan; captured the HQ of the govt newspaper and the telegraph bureau
10 Jan; Freikorp took over the Spartacists HQ
15 Jan; Spartacists were crushed and leaders murdered.
Why it failed; 1000s of Communists killed, had little support from other LW groups, badly prepared, only captured HQ and bureau but nothing else, leaders were murdered, easily crushed by FK only 13 of them killed.
Significance; encouraged other uprisings, govt put in hands of army and FK so was reliant on them but they could not be trusted, some SDs criticised use of army and Ebert undermined working class, country was unstable, showed that Ebert could successfully deal with LW threats.
The Weimar Constitution; new set of rules for how the country should be governed
The President; elected every 7 years, controlled army, not involved in day to day running of country, Article 48 allowed him to pass emergency laws without going through Reichstag
The Chancellor; responsible for day to day running, chosen by President
The Reichstag; voted on laws, members elected every 4 years through proportional representation this gave small parties a chance
The German people; elected the President and Reichstag members, all over 20 voted, all had equal rights and freedom of speech.
STRENGTHS; democratic because all had equal rights, PR was fair, created a strong govt, powers balanced between Chancellor and President, Article 48 was a sensible precaution, each state had some control over affairs.
WEAKNESSES; equal rights was not a good idea because the Republic had many enemies who wanted to destroy it, PR encouraged small parties so majority was hard to get and coalitions often formed, President had too much power, President and Reichstag may disagree on who should be Chancellor, how can you define an emergency with Article 48, states were quite powerful.
Importance of new constitution; big change because it was democratic and this leads to stability and less conflict, aimed to provide a strong govt, fills power vacuum left by Kaiser's abdication
The Treaty of Versaille: Main Terms
BLAME, MONEY had to pay £6600 million in reparations for damage caused by war, ARMY no air force, limited to 100,000 soldiers and 15,000 sailors in navy, 6 battleships and no submarines, no troops allowed in Rhineland, LAND lost 13% of land containing 6 mil people, 10% of industry and 15% of farmland. Alsace Lorraine returned to France, Polish corridor, colonies given to Allies.
Had hoped for lenient settlment because;
They had already fulfilled conditions to remove Kaiser and to bring in a democratic govt.
They thought that the Allies would want to help them and give their new govt a chance to establish itself.
President Wilson's 14 points had given them hope because they were fair.
Germany felt forced into war and thought blame should be shared.
Why the T of V was hated; didn't accept full blame, high reparations were difficult to repay and they already had economic issues, saw it as a diktat because they had no say and it was forced upon them as a threat, did not accept defeat and think they could have won war, Germans living on foreign soil, Polish corridor split the country, reduced army made them feel vulnerable, were expecting lenience, lost farmland and industry which further affected starvation
The army disliked the treaty and the demobbed soldiers joined the Freikorp. In 1920 the Allies became concerned about their power. The govt tried to limit numbers so Wolfgang Kapp staged a revolution in Berlin and the army did not stop them. A general strike was called to end it.
Participants weren't punished and this shows that the govt were weak. The Kapp Putsch was significant because it showed that politicians were unsafe In Berlin, the WG had little support and they coped badly without army support. More important that Spartacist because showed reliance on army.
Young Hitler and Origins of Nazi party
Early influences; lost his job when a Jewish Trade Union discovered he was not in a union, picked up Anti Semitic views while in Vienna, fought in WWI and was bitter about defeat, blamed it on Jews, Communists and Jews.
Hitler attended meeting of German Workers Party in Sept 1919, liked their ideas and joined them. 1920 party renamed the Nazis. Party based in Bavaria which was good because it was very right wing and state govt wanted to overthrow WG too.
Hitler created SA for the Nazis. They protected speakers at meetings but often created violence at SD meetings.
Hitler was a good leader because he had a powerful personality, great presence, charismatic speaker.
Early party ideas; Socialistic- increase old age pension, nationalise industries
Nationalistic- rearm Germany, destroy Marxism, remove Jews from power, no non German newspaper editors.
Goebbels; Joined in 1922, first opposed Hitler's leadership but became one of most influential supporters- dealt with propaganda.
Goering; Joined in 1922, in charge of the SA.
Hess; Joined in 1920, Hitler's private secretary and respsonsible for party admin.
Himmler; Joined in 1923 and was a regional party chief.
Rohm; Founding member from 1919, set up and ran SA.