The Industrial Reolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology took place. It began in the UK, then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.
Requirements for the Industrial Revolution
Domestic System (Small scale, expensive, slow) ~ Factory System (quick, possibe large scale, cheap)
The Domestic system could not meet the needs of a growing population so the factory system was brought into use.
There were 8 requirements for the Industrial Revolution:
- FUEL- Demand for coal. Restriction needed on amount obtained.
- DEMAND- Demand for all goods increased due to population growth.
- ENTREPRENEURS AND INNOVATION- New ideas for tech. and machines.
- NATURAL RESOURCES- Production of iron for Bridges, Engines, Machines
- TRANSPORT- In 1750- Road or river. In 1900- Canals or railways
- ENGINEERING- George Stephenson, Isambard Kingdom Brunel
- POWER- Earlier- Water power and water wheels. 1900- Steam power
- COLONIAL EXPANSION- Supply of cheap raw materials increased.
Characters involved eg. Richard Arkwright
Narrow Cloth- cloth could only be woven as wide as the weaver’s reach
In 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle. It could make wider cloth and at a faster pace.
Kay’s Flying Shuttle meant that it took 6 spinners to supply 1 weaver.
In 1767, James Hargreaves invented the spinning machine: ‘The Spinning Jenny’
Despite Hargreaves’ Invention there was still a shortage of good quality thread.
In 1769, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame. However it was too large to be placed in homes so Arkwright and his business partner built their first factory in Cromford in Derbyshire. They found a way to power the water frame with water power. The factory system had begun.
The thread spun by the jenny and water frame was too rough and not suitable for high quality cotton products.
In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the mule. It had to be located in factories as it needed to be driven by steam or water. So bigger factories were built and the mule was improved by Richard Roberts who made it fully automatic.
Home workers (spinners)
Spinning was now linked to the factory system but weavers still worked at home.
In 1785, Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom that could weave automatically.