History - Writers

Writers of Sources

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Shakespeare- Pro Tudors. Writing for Henry's daughter - In Elizabeth's regin - so wouldnt go against her.

Funeral Oration(Eulogy)- Always positive about the person.

Ambassadors- who's their audience? - King/Queen of country (ruler). Venice - group of people, French/Spanish king - comment on what they know.

Spanish Amassador - Chapuis- not as close as French. French & England good relations at this time. Situation of Ambassador & what writing about. How close to action & home. Job/relation to master- not writing to Henry. Judge - could be realistic- if close to action.

Starkey- Henry VIII region seen as factions- flucuations in rule. FACTIONS- Fall of Cromwell/ Wolsey/ Anne - all in factions and why fell. Cromwell - more conservative s to bring down Anne as powerful and personal threat- falling - and dont want to fall too. Written in factions view.

Expolusion of the minons - 1519 - Wolsey exerting control. Getting Henry back to buisness.Eltan Ordanices - removing threat from Privy Chamber. 1526 - Political purge - Wolsey trying to save money.

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 Assertio Septem Sacramentorum - Henrh's work with More's help - agains Luther. Anti- Luther, Wolsey's help in 1521.

More- nice things about Henry. Renassaince style- Henry kingship. Not accept Bolyen marriage/ condemn papal jurisdiction in 1534.

Edward Hall- Francophobe, lawyer, MP,Merchant. Writing about the creation of Tudors. Unfriendly source to Wolsey - liked work of Reformation. Cambridge Educated.Sees Henry as greates monarch, supports reformation. Doesn't like Pope & Catholicism, thought Wolsey - extorinate. Cocerned about War- if affected tax - DOESN'T WANT WAR AND AFFECTING TAXES -(MP). Pilgimage of Grace - seen as Catholic and an attempt to bring onarchs back. Support Break with Rome. Anti-clerical. Saw Wolsey as corrupt. Disapproved of Wolsey's alliance with French in 1520s. Not close to Wolsey- held no personal grudge.

Evangalical people(wealthiest) : Hull &London

John Foxe- 1563- Book of Marters - to Protestants - Heros who die Protestants. In Mary's regin - likes Cromwell. Hates Wolsey. Pre-Reformation Church - bad.

Guy- They had to go as could not operate along side Supremacy, implies were more intellcutal origins to Dissolution

Elton-  Tudor Gov. Dissolution of the monastries- over emphaised. Not central part of Reformation - monastries in England on its last legs. Land of monastries - been under attack for 2 centuries.

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Simon Fish-  wrote Supplication of the Beggars 1529- 16 paged pamphlet - to be sold for monwy- so own ideas. Petition to the King. Anne gave to King- Randell says - was in his favour. 'Ravenous wolves'-priests. Supplication of the Beggars - talking about anticlerical lives of priests - living off sheep 'wolves' - gaining money. Urged abolosihion of monatries and siezer of lands. Against Indulgences.Catholic Priests/clerks tyrants who lack/ clergy attempt to userp. Warns Henry - fail to meet needs of poor - then there will be a revolt like in James's rule. Ancient Kings never. Motivation - in touch with new ideas - In Antwerp (quite Lutheran) see church exploiting people. Criticisms of Wolsey.

Exile in Antrwerp - acted in a play that was badf to Wolsey - so left England.

1515 - Hunne Case - stood up against the Church. Wealthy londener wont pay for burial of child. Seized on heresy, suggestion of murder - Hung himslef .

More wrote response to Fish - Supplication of the Souls - defending Catholics.

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A.G. Dickens-  1960s.Old fashioned. Wrote 1964 book - English Reformation. BOTTOM UP & FAST - pressure comes from the people. Evangelicals- Protestants- people change.

Duffey -  Revisonist- 1980s.TOP-DOWN- Pressure form Kings & Queens.Book 1992- ********* of Altars. Pressure from King wanting change, not people - Everything very enthuastic.

Haigh- Revisonist- 1980s.TOP-DOWN. King - Church not very corrupt. 1987 book The English Reformation Revisited. Ordinary pople not interested in ideas of church. Challenges Dickens. People happy - wills etc. Series of Poltical achievements, put together looked like a Refomration

Cavendish-  1522-1530- Man-servant of Wolsey - biased -at home. Wolsey wore a hair shirt- shows Catholic - constantly itching - reminder of religion. Doesn't Know Wolsey at Court. 1544- Book - Life & Death of Cardinal Wolsey - During Henry's regin - sympathetic view when dieing - possibly exaggorated.Likes Wolsey - only entered Wolsey's house in 1522- not privy to political life- only personal one.

 Robert Whiting- TOP-DOWN- King -Church not that corrupt.Reformation is a very slow process. People wanted to keep money- not give it to the Church

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Vergil- Italian Humanists -Personal fued ongoing with Wolsey.1st publication - contains nothing of Henry 8th as commisisoned by Herny 7th (written for). Anlgican historian in 1535  published.1555 - later version published with Henry 8th in it as published during Mary's regin. Vergil was put out - Wolsey more interested in other humanists, Amonio (antoher Italian humanists). Condemened to Tower 1515- Personal Fued to Wolsey. Aggrivated lack of favour in Henry 8th new court. Says Wolsey played a part in Duke of Buckingham's execution in 1521- Treason- sympathetic to Yorkist (white rose),Private army.

(know dates -could reflect bias)

1548 - 1553 Edward - Protestant. 1553-1558 Mary - Catholic 1559-1603 Elizabeth 1603 - onwards James - Stuarts

Gwyn-  1990- recent histroian. Positive about Wolsey. Didnt set out to antagonise nobility. -Wolsey never had total control. BUT Very little source materail on Wolsey, Therefore  must rely on Contempories views. Wolsey ambitious, worked hard - npt force way to the top.

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Skelton - Published work for  wealthy London citizens - Therefore had to appeal to their views. Keen for fame and fortune. Work shouldnt be taken at face value. Writing to entertain.Poems, speke Parrot  - 1521- loosing favour of Henry & why come ye not to Court. Poems anout the Kings ministers - only for nobles - linked to Howards- friends of Norfolk. Memories, occassions - Henry & Wolsey fall out. Alter Rex. Mocks Wolsey - writing sarcastically, written to suit current concerns, exaggorated flaws that happened

1522-  1st fall out over proposition of fighting french

1528 - The 2 men fell out over seeming trival matter - Abbies to Nunnery at Wilton

Then Amicable Grant later.

Starkey- Young men who wiped Henry VIII's bottom & dressed him - closer to him than Wolsey - personally as Wolsey not allowed in the room - Privy Chamber. Usually groom (companion jousts with) is arisocrat - friend- Sir William Compton- peronal favours.- groom of the stool - faction at heart of government.  Henry 7th - a servant (not friendly/ close to at all).

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Cromwell- Leading Minister 1533-1540. Supplication against Ordinaries - got rid of Church Authority. Introduced petition against Church courts. Achieved: 3 annulments, Break with Rome, Dissoultion of the monastries- doubled King's income (£110,000), Royal Supremacy, English Bible- available to public

Cranmer- Cambridge Scholar 1520, discussed new Lutheran ideas- links to Anne Boylen. Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury as sympathetic to divorse, helped draw up Collectanea Satis Corpiosa- basis for Royal Supremacy. 

William Warham- Archbishop of Canterbury- has job Wolsey wants. Warham and Fox against Wolsey. Lord Chancellor- served Henry 7th.  Died 1532.

Bishop Fox- Lord Privy Seal- served Henry 7th 

Robert Aske- Leader of Pilgrimage of Grace- about to die so like the Church (under oath)

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Anne Boylen- Family motives - Power. Sister was Henry's mistress. Key figure in Wosley's fall.

Wolsey- Wanted Archbishop of Canterbury- not get-made Papal Legate a latere- higher position by Pope- given Power. Broke celibacy- wife & gave sons positions-  against Church rules. Took Warham & Fox's jobs - so dislike him.

Alter Rex- Wolsey acting as another King

Vergil                                                                   Hall                                                   Cavendish

Skelton- £

Nobility hate


Elton 1960s                                                          Guy 1990s                               Gwyn 1990s

Scarisbrick                                  Having "a partnership"            Good Guy - does his bidding

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Privy Council- Henry's friends - did jousts- reliable. Wolsey not allowed in

Tyndale- Most outspoken Lutheran- had to flee to Europe. 1538- Officialy circulated. Translated copies of the new testament 1525. Burnt as a heretic 1538.

Palmer- Reformation - 2 Parts, motive for Dissolution was financial.

Campeggio- Persuaded Catherine to go to a nunnery- She refused.

Scarisbrick- English people were still attached to Catholicism. Reformation took a long time to take hold. Henry planned dissoultion of larger monastries all along.

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Factions- Starkey's view of Henry 8th through factions

1529  Wolsey vs.  Anne   + Conservatives

1530 Cromwell + Anne  vs.  Conservatives

1536 Cromwell vs.  Conservatives vs.  Anne - Brings down Anne

Cromwell vs. Conservatives

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Catherine of Aragon- Keep marriage. Regent when Henry was away fighting France - stong military leader - defeated Scotland invasion 1513.

John Fisher- Bishop of Rochester- sipporter of Catherine- at Blackfriars. Refused oath of succesion - close correspondent to Chapuys

Ives- Loves Anne Boylen

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