Treaty Of Versailles + Early R.W Threats
WEST- Alsace Lorraine, Rhineland (15), Output of Sarr to France (15)
EAST- Polish Corridor sea access, Danzig to L.O.N, Memel to Lithuania, Upper Silesia (P)
RESPONS. & REPS- Article 231 War Guilt Clause, £6.6bn
DISARMAMENT- stripped of small overseas empire, 100k, 6 light battleships, no tanks/heavy artillery/air force/submarines
GERMAN REACTION- Diktat, 14 points? not invited to peace conference, P.Corridor= 1m+ Germans under Polish rule + East Prussia cut off despite Allies beleif in 'self determination'
KAPP PUTSCH 1920- angry at army reduction, gov left Berlin, army don't help, von Seeckt 'troops do not fire on troops' had to rely on workers strike and Berlin at standstill
ORGANISATION CONSUL- Walter Rathenau Jew and Nov Criminal Erzberger 1921. Politicians live in fear.
Early L.W threat + 1923
L.W- 400k by 1920 (new recruits) after the independant socialist party disintigrated
Ruhr(20) Saxony(21) crushed by army. Spartacists 50k no prep, red fear. HOWEVER Lenin and TUs backed, general hunger and unrest, army disintigrated, Freikorps available.
1923 YEAR OF CRISIS
RUHR- Jan= Belg and Fr troops, failed reps, passive resistance, brutal 100+ shot, raids
HYPERINFLATION- middle class biggest losers, debts paid off, mass starvation
MUNICH PUTSCH- SA, lets Lossow and Kahr go home, 14 Nazis killed, propaganda trial
POLITICAL UNREST- TUs had shielded, by summer: prices>>wages, riots and looting, KPD plan to seize Saxony, Nationalist mood(French in Ruhr), Munich Putsch
HOW DID WEIMAR SURVIVE IN THE EARLY 20s?
left failed (lack of support) right failed (divisions- didnt ALL attack with ALL resources)
majority of Germans wanted democracy
100 DAY CHANCELLOR- ends PR (political suicide) courage, Remtenmark= 1 trillion marks, orders army to Saxony, waits for RW to s.d. LITTLE GRATITIUDE. too leneant to RW
FOREIGN MINISTER- Dawes 24, reduced £/year, allies supervise banks, French go, $200m loan from USA to restart paments. Locarno 25, no border change F+G, nothing about E border, LON 26, never in Ruhr or A.L. Young 29, final settlement, replace Dawes, down 2/3 £6.6 to £1.85, out of Rhineland, NO FOREIGN FORCES IN GERMANY
LATE 20s ECONOMY- spenid more, no hyp. allies. dependant on foreign investment, farmers suffered, debt and hardly any help from republic, Unions too powerful, labour-saving machines=unemployment and strikes, house building, unemployment insurace 1927, middle class still reeling. Extremists learning from mistakes, Hindeburg elected(anti-democ') street violence- SA and Red Front Fighters league.
:) political mods, FP, moved L-ward, Golden Years too generous BUT better than 1923. :( depends on USA, Ebert had used A.48, Rathenau originated Policy of fulfilment, Schact= Renten+ Dawes and Young, Coalition, NO polish corridor/Colonies DANCING ON A VOLCANO