History - Tudors

Revision cards about the Tudors, from Somerset's reign all the way to Elizabeth's reign.

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  • Western Rebellion - June 1549 - Rebels in Devon weren't happy with Protestantism (they were Catholic) - Were defeated on 16th August 1549 at Sampford Courtenay.
  • Kett's Rebellion - Encouraged by Somerset's setting up of enclosure - started in Norfolk early July - Robert Ket led an army of 16,000 men to Norwich and the authorities co-operated fearing widespread destruction. Somerset introduced a sheep tax which angered rich people.
  • Wyatt's rebellion - 1554 - Rebels were angry that Mary was planning on marrying Philip of Spain as he was a Catholic and was foreign. This sparked up xenophobia throughout the country. Was brought back under control a Mary enlisted the help of the Duke of Norfolk. Bridges were sealed off in London which stopped the rebellion.
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Northumberland's accession

  • End of Edward VI's reign - religion mainly Catholic w/o pope
  • Edward brought up as Protestant
  • 1550-1553 - England became more protestant - little opposition (as bad consequences)
  • Northumberland used religion to get into power - told Catholics he was conservative - next day he banned the Catholic faith
  • He went on to attack wealth of the church - surveys done on Bishops who earn more than £50 a year. £1 of churchland was also taken every year
  • By 1553 - church more protestant - people happy to convert back (wanted money really)
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Northumberland's fall from power

  • Kett's and Western rebellions forced him from power
  • Financial position forced him from power
  • 1552 - Edward's health deteriorates - If he died Northumberland would lose his position as protector - Mary would become queen
  • Tries to hang on for power - arranges for son Guildford to marry Lady Jane Grey
  • 10th July - LJG pronounced queen (forced) - Mary declares self queen at same time - gets rejected
  • Northumberland bonds army against Mary - left London with 2000 soldiers - Mary has gathering of ordinary people at Framlingham castle (Catholics and Protestants)
  • Northumberland suffers dessertions of army
  • 18th July - Privy council claim they had been misled - accepted Mary was queen
  • Northumberland arrested and executed on 22nd August 1553
  • 1554 - Elizabeth declared rightful heir if Mary died childless
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Mary - marriage

  • Mary needs to get a husband so she can produce an heir (1553)
  • Had few candidates:

Edward Courtney - ideal candidate, well learned - one problem - had been locked in tower since age of 12 so had bad social skills (wouldn't be able to keep up high standards)

Philip of Spain - could tie up relations with Spain - wasn't enthusiastic but didn't mind and was experienced in running a country, was son of the man Mary had relied on during Edward's reign

Problems - Philip was foreign - Mary doesn't tell her council who find out from the Spanish ambassador - they're not happy about it

  • 7th Dec 1553 - Privy council accept terms of treaty of marriage
  • April 1554 - Marriage agreement accepted by Privy council

  • Had to abide by marriage terms - basically he wasn't allowed to take control of England or take any money from England - was just her sex slave to have an heir by!
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Mary - reformation back to Catholicism

  • She had to use parliament to undo anything VIII did before to England
  • Protestant books became illegal to import into England - printers printing these lost their licenses
  • 1553 - Act passed to get rid of Edwardian rules - churches back to way they were before HVIII's death
  • She gives fruits and tenths back to the church
  • She delayed Pole's return to England so she could sort out the problem with getting church land back
  • Pole only let back in if all church legislation since 1529 is reversed back - these terms Pope prepared to accept Catholic as England's religion
  • Clergy given 12 decrees to restore finances back to the church
  • Pole sets up Trinity and St. Johns colleges in Oxford - to educate Catholic priests for the future
  • 300 Protestants burnt at the stake
  • Difficult for Mary to take Protestant books out of circulation
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Mary - Supression and Opposition

  • Historian - Tittler - suggested Mary had a character defect - made it hard for her to promote a positive image of herself
  • Main aim: kids, marriage
  • She has to rely on laws and regulations:
  • June 1553 - proclaimation banning spread of ceditious rumours (undermining of the state)
  • August 1553 - ban on printing books, pamphlets and ballads
  • June 1555 - index published of banned authors and books
  • June 1558 - death penalty introduced for posessing treasonable books
  • Despite all this - hard for Mary to control Protestantism - Ridley and Latimer in the tower still managed to publish religious pamphlets
  • Various things published that attacked Catholicism - Catholicism is a pubishment from God"
  • Hard for Mary to get her books out - most printers busy printing new books for the churches and some were banned from printing
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Mary - Foreign Policy

  • 1553+54 - Mary tries to act as honest broker between England and Spain
  • Sep 1556 - War broke out between France and Spain - Philip reappeared in England after 2 years absence - wants money and naval support on the channel
  • Concern if England goes to war with France, Scotland could get involved
  • 1556 - Dudley conspiracy - minor plan to remove Mary from the throne (has backing from the French)
  • April 1557 - Thomas Stafford - English Protestant exile dropped off at Scarborough by French ship - intention to start a rebellion - war with France now inevitable. Good harvests - another good reason to go to war
  • Mary believed if England united against common enemy it would draw people together
  • Philip put in hand reforms to the English navy - increases amount of ships against France
  • English army was reformed with new volunteers - looked like England in a better position
  • Philip conducted a peace treaty with the Pope - if France at war with England - would also be at war with Pope
  • 7th June 1557 - England declare war on France
  • Oct 1557 - Scots attack and fall out with themselves
  • King Henry (France) - only attacks English territory with 27,000 troops - lasts for 2 weeks
  • Mary lost Calais
  • Trade suffered a bit
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Elizabeth - Succession

  • Mary died - 17th Nov 1558
  • Elizabeth proclaimed queen on same day - by Nicholas Heath (Bishop of York+Lord Chancellor) - only took 6 hours
  • Elizabeth knew Mary had died before everybody else - she got Nicholas Throckmorton to come and tell her as she didn't trust anybody else - didn't want to be executed for treason
  • William Cecil - her advisor - helped her prepare to be queen
  • Historian - David Starky - "Above all, Cecil could work and thanks to his experience under Ed VI he knew the business of government inside out. This alone got the Elizabethan regime off to a flying start"
  • Elizabeth divided existing privy council into 3 groups based on trust levels
  • Lord Robert Dudley - helped master of the horses - emotional connection with Elizabeth (would have married him but he didn't tell her he was already married)
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Elizabeth - Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity

  • 3 wills in relation to religion: 1 - Act of Supremacy - restored Elizabeth to the same title as Edward had (Supreme head of the Church of England)
  • Prayer books from Edward's reign to be used
  • Elizabeth worried of a Spanish takeover - wants to secure return of Calais (Cateau Cambrasis negotiations going on)
  • April 1559 - French and Spanish sign peace of Cateau Cambrasis (England does not get Calais back)
  • Mary had Bishops arrested as they disagreed in the debate held by Elizabeth about the position of the Pope. She could then push changes in parliament
  • Wants as many people as possible to be loyal to her
  • Clergy had to wear certain clothing (vestments) and a fine of a shilling was inposed on people who didnt show up to church
  • Historian - Sir John Neale - said Elizabeth was moved in a more protestant position that she wanted to be by the Puritan Choir (had been in exile during Mary's reign)
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