25 point programme
- 1920 - Nazi party published.
- stated that none but members of the nation will be citizens e.g. no Jew, only those of German blood.
- also put forward a demand in 1914, that all Jews should be forced to leave Germany.
Munich 'Beer Hall' Putsch
- 1923, where Hitler and Nazi associates tried to seize power from Van Kahr in Muich, Germany and failed miserabely.
- But, saw an opportunity to increase support for himsef and his party via his speeches and inclusing the use of propaganada.
- Kapp Putsch - another failed takeover of Berlin in 1920 by elements of the Freikorps.
- This is why Hitler was suspious and didn't completely trust the friekorps.
Boycott of Jewish businesses and shops
- Goebbels organised intense propganda campigin which was cariied out by SA.
- SA marked out places to target and stoof outside the shops/businesses to stop people from entering.
- targetted Jewish lawyers and judges - they were attacked and had theur legal ribes stripped from them.
- However, there was confusion between what was considered a Jewish shop - as a result, it was abandoned after one day.
- Hitler didn't like a recoultion from below, he wanted to keep the SA under his control and he was geniunely concren about the reactions og the german people from it.
Enabling Act, 1933
- Enabled Hitler as chancellor to rule the Reichstag for four years without having to dicuss or talk through his decisions with any fo the ministers.
- this allowed Hitler to create decrees etc. that he wanted and wasn't worried about whether the ministers would consider it to be good/bad.
Night of Long Knives, 1934
- when the SA leader wanted to join up with the army causing him to become the most powerful man in the world. (Ernst Rohm)
- Hitler didn't like this and refused along with the SA - so on that night, Ernst Rohm and many other SA polictical leaders were killed by ** units on the order of Hitler.
- This meant that Hitler had the oath of alligence of the army and ** and was now very powerful under his control in Nazi Germany.
The Four Year Plan, 1936
- Four Year plan was a plan to prepare `Germany for War within four years, created by Goring.
- He demanded a greater say in Jewish policy and that it was carried out to nenefit teh economcy, not to damage it which was a result of Kristallnacht (night of terror against the Jews) This weakened Germany's preparations to be ready for War in time.
Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939
The pact stated that Germany and the soviet union would not fight each other and that they would divide Poland between them.
Germany signed it because:
•They wanted to regain the polish corridor and Danzig.
•Did not want to fight a war on two fronts.
The soviets signed it because:
•They wanted to gain land.
•They need time to build up weapons in case of a German attack.
•The soviets didn't trust Britain and France to stop Germany so took action on it’s own.
•Britain promised to help Poland if invaded.
•Hitler though that Britain would do nothing and so invaded less than two weeks later.
German Invasion of USSR (Operation Barbossa)
- Germany invaded Soviet Union because it stopped the spread of cimmunism and if succeeded then would stop communism in its tracks. Also allowed fro more space to deal with the Jews and other minorities like the slavs.
- 1941, the Einzastruzaguppen (operational squads) were used partically to kill the Jews and other miniorities. Killings contuned untill 1943 - whole communities were wiped out.
- This started the beginning of the holocaust and concenration camps due to hte psychology effect th killings where having on the men - another soultion had to found. And use of gassing and crementating the Jews instead of shooting them.
- From 1944, evacuations of concentration camps and forced marches so that they could get away from the Red Army.
- These death marches caused terrible suffering and loss of life - many died from exhaustion and shot by leaders for not keeping up.
- it is thought 250,000 to 400,000 Jews and other minoritity groups were persecuted from the death marches alone.
Responsibility for the Holocaust
- Hitler's fault = was the driving force behinnd the Holocaust as it was alwasy his plan to kill the Jews and other minorities to make way for a strong nation. Extermination was seen as a long term plan by Hitler.
- Ordinary people = however, so many people were invovled with the mass killings and the persecution of the miniorities before the final soultion suggests that the ordinary people were to to blame as they cvould have done something about it. But others say that Hitler has hypotished them via his speeches and isolated them so they would ignore the surroundings.
The Great Depression, 1929
- started straight after the wall street crash - menat that Germany couldn't pay back repartions to Br and Fr.
- The reutenmark increased and everything became very expensive to buy - this was a problem because it threw everyone into a miserable poverty which they looked to get out of by any soultion avaialble.
- this enabled Hitler to grab the oppourtunity to increase support for his party so them becoming elected into the Reichstag and at the same time building a Nazi government which could replce democracy which it did.
- Hitler's radical policies stressed that the Aryan race needed to be healthy and strong which mean that those who proved a threat e.g. disabled, mentally ill where are burden.
- disabled, mentally and physically ill where regarded as a burden on society - taking money of the society that could be used elsewhere.
- before 1939, Nazi position had not been strong enough to attempt this potentially unpopular policy and this was due to WW2
- letter from a father asking that his deformed son to put to sleep in 1939 - spurred Hitler onto the T45 euthanasia programme.
- T4 euthanansia programme = included childrena dn adults, basically doctors and nurses would sign paperwork which said that they needed to be euthanasised - soem were carreerists (they didn't care about the Jews). By had to stop in 1941, due to German people finding out and were very unsupported and shocked by this, Hitler didn't wan to lose the people's faith in him. was continued later on but more extreme.