How is America governed?
Supreme Court- highest court in America, has power to say a law unconstitutional
White House- centre of Presidential action, powers on foreign policy, defence, trade, currency etc. Base of FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
Senate- one of Houses in Congress; senators elected for 6 years, 2 from each state
House of Representatives- other House in Congress, called Congressmen, elected for 2 years
Congress- has to agree to all laws from White House before accepted
Constitution- lays down most important laws, 'check' on Congress' and White House's power.
Consequences of World War I- economic strength
(1) The USA overtook European overseas markets
- More successful than Europeans
- E.g. overtaken Germany as world's leading producer of fertilisers and dyes.
(2) America had advanced technology
- new materials (e.g. plastic) were at hand to help
(3) One way trade with Europe
- money poured in due to exports
- e.g. food, raw materials, munitions
Consequences of World War I- social and economic p
(1) Unemployment and strikes
- Bosses refused to take more workers- unemployment meant more wages
- led to violent strikes
(2) Returning soldiers struggled to find jobs
- wages low
- prices high
(3) Racial abuse
(4) Communism rising
- people feared a revolution
Consequences of World War I- Immigration
(1) Immigrants brought nastiness
- E.g. mafia, socialism, anarchy
(2) Lead to ghettos
- ghettos were horrible
- violence, drunkedness, prostitution etc.
(3) Lots of immigrants from poor places
- mostly Eastern Europe (e.g. Poland, Russia, Italy)
- led to poverty
(4) People of all cleverness trying to get in
- America introduced 40 word test to limit immigrants- failing meant you were kicked out
Consequences of World War I- Isolationism
(1) Woodrow Wilson wanted world peace
- therefore, join League of Nations to help other countries
(2) Congress and people didn't want this
- wanted normalcy (as it had been before the war)
- stay isolated from the world- sign of power
- no soldiers killed in non-American wars
- felt they had done the part in World War I
Why was America the richest country in the world?
(1) Justifying the boom
- Siegfred's book: Europeans find luxuries which are normal in America
- Industrial production rose from 100 to almost 200 (1921-29)
- Number of millionaires x5 in 14 years
- Companies gain more money- higher wages and dividends
- Lots of people had cars
(2) Who did well?
- The higher in society you were, the more money you got
- Still high rates of unemployment (e.g. 11.9% in 1921, to 3.2% in 1929)
(3) What happened to wages and company profits?
- average wages increased by 10% in 9 years.
- company profits increased by just over 60% in 9 years.
Economy Boom- New Industries
- new domestic goods- (e.g. radios sold increased from 60,000 to 10 million in 9 years)
- electricity use doubled in 1920s
- 1929, 70% of Americans had lights
- e.g. dyes, fertilisers, new plastics, man-made fibres
- 17 million increase in production (1919= 9 million produced, 1929= 26 million produced)
- mass produced=cheap and easy to afford
- created demand for steel, glass and rubber
Economy Boom- Entertainment
(1) Newspapers and magazines
- mostly tabloids (e.g. fashion, sports, crime, movie stars)
- first tabloid in 1919- by 1922, 10 mags had 2.5million+ circulation
- most popular sport was baseball
- 1924, 67,000 at match between Illinois and Michigan
- 1926, 145,000 at boxing match
- MASS-PRODUCTION industry- Hollywood
- tickets sold a week increased by 60million from 1920 to 1930
- comedies most popular
Economy Boom- Shopping and Advertising
- Chain stores lead to mass production
- Clothing sales up by 427%
- Truck industry improved meant goods delivered easier
- Remote people could buy anything by mail
- New types- e.g. magazine and radio advertising
- Colourful with catch-phrases
- promoted consumer goods
Economy Boom- Transport and Construction
(1) Aircraft improved
- 162,000 flights by 1929
(2) 1930, paved roads doubled
- more cars, trucks (x3 to 3.5million by 1929) and buses
(1) Industrial growth
- skyscrapers demonstrated companies' power
- office boom- e.g. banks, insurance companies, advertising companies
- demand for factories
Why was there a boom?
(1) A good starting point
- natural resources- provided materials required for growing industries
- World War I- industries had flying start
- policies of Republican presidents- businesses could expand without restrictio
(2) New ideas on business
- new technology- modernised old businesses
- mass production- materials cheap and easy to afford
- mass marketing- encouraged people to buy more
- credit- people could buy even if they didn't have enough money
(3) National outlook
- confidence- right frame of mind for developments
The significance of Henry Ford
(1) Mass-production and business ideas
- Ford was the pioneerer of mass production- put cars on an assembly line and parts are added.
- 1913, 1 car every 3 minutes. 1920s, 1 car every 10 seconds.
- Could be afforded by more people because cheap
- hard work for all, including himself- no shabby work.
- 1914, doubled wages to $5- loads more workers. Still got lots of profit
(2) Impact of Model T
- price dropped from $1200 to $295. Cheap, and useful for types of road.
- brought sense of freedom- encouraged building of roads
(3) Outside the car industry
- pacifist, politician, anti-Semite (anti-Jews), union basher and charity giver
- very influential
Who didn't benefit from the boom?
(1) Black people
- Most lived in South, worked as labourers or sharecroppers, huge discrimination
- 3/4 million farm workers lost jobs in 1920s
(2) New immigrants
- faced discrimination- less educated and stereo-typed
- lots worked in construction, where wages only rose 4%- CHEAP LABOUR!
- 3million families+ less than $1000 a year- creating more than they need=less income =difficult to keep mortgage=eviction
- small farmers came out worse
(4) Industrial workers
- old industries mechanised- loss of jobs (e.g. miners), prices+wages drop
- too much coal=market shrinking, as oil, gas, electricity more important
How was life different for women?
- Mechanisation=more jobs for less strong women (e.g. car production)
- lower wages meant more likely to be employed than men
- 1930, number of women employed up by 25%.
- liberated from feminist views- greater freedom
- more women smoking, drinking, driving cars, wearing make up etc.
- extreme liberated woman called flapper- considered base of womens' fashion (e.g. short skirts, bright clothes, lots of make up)
- Many women stayed clear of flappers, still took some advantage of new machines (e.g. hoovers) to get more time