- In 1929, less than 5% of the peasant population were on collective or state farms.
- In 1930, Stalin announced plans to collectivise 25% of grain-producing areas by the end of the year.
- Larger units of land could be farmed more efficiently as a result of mechanisation.
- 'Machine and Tractor Stations' could supply machinery.
- Experts could introduce modern farming methods to increase production.
- Mechanised agriculture would require fewer peasants, so more of them could move to the cities and create labour for industry.
- It would be easier for the state to procure grain from fewer collection points.
- Communist officials could easily keep track of produce.
- Collectivisation would socialise the peasantry, encouraging co-operation and a sense of community.
- It could offer a solution to the procurement crisis of 1928-29.
- Peasant resistance could be controlled and eradicated.
- It would provide resources for industrialisation, and was a step towards this process.
1 of 5
How was Collectivisation carried out?
- Force, terror and propaganda were all used to create a rift between the Kulaks and the poorer peasants.
- Stalin used the ideological weapon of the 'class enemy':
- The Kulaks became the 'class enemy' in the countryside.
- Stalin decided to dissolve them as a class, and didn't allow them to join the collective farms.
- This frightened other peasants in to joining Kolkhouses.
- Many people refused to identify Kulaks, despite being encouraged to.
- Stalin enlisted 25000 urban party activists to revolutionise the countryside.
- The process was backed by the local police, secret police and military.
- Land was taken from Kulaks and used for collective farms.
- Kulaks were often deported or killed.
- The government isssued new procurement quotas, with penalties for failure to meet them.
- After the 'Dizzy with success' speech, a temporary climbdown tactic was employed.
- A huge propaganda campaign illustrated the advantages of collectivisation and enhanced the hatred of the Kulaks.
2 of 5
Types of Collective farm: The Toz
- Peasants owned their own land.
- Machinery was communal and shared.
- Co-operation occured in activities such as sowing and harvesting.
3 of 5
Types of Collective farm: The Sovkhoz
- These were owned and run by the state.
- They were the original and intended aim of collectivisation.
- Peasants were paid regualar wages.
- The set-up was similar to that of factories.
4 of 5
Types of Collective farm: The Kolkhoz
- Land was held in common and run by an elected committee.
- Consisted of 50-100 households.
- Land, tools and livestock were all pooled.
- Land was farmed by all of the peasants as a single unit.
- Private plots were allowed (up to one acre), from which peasants made and sold extra produce.
- This type of farm was most favoured by the Communists in the 1930s.
5 of 5