History - The League of Nations Part 2 (1920s)

This set is for OCR GCSE History, specifically The League of Nations Part 2 (1920s) and has four sub-topics which are:

Country Disputes Successes          Country Disputes Failures          World Wide Improvements          Disarmament

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Country Disputes Successes - Upper Silesia 1921

Upper Silesia was an industrial area on the border of Germany and Poland.

Both the Germans and Polish inhabited it.

Both countries wanted control of it. 

In 1920, a plebicite was held to see what the citizens wanted.

French an British soldiers came to make sure the citizens were able to vote fairly.

The industrial area voted Germany and the rural Poland.

The border was drawn to these lines.

Safe guards were built to prevent a future war. 

Both countries accepted the decision.

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Country Disputes Successes - Aaland Islands 1921

Both Sweden and Finland wanted control of the Aaland Islands as they were midway between the two.

Thy both threatened to fight one another.

They appealed to the League.

After close study the League said the islands should go to Finland.

Sweden accepted the ruling.

War was avoided.

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Country Disputes Failures - Vilna 1920

Poland and Lithuania were two new states created by post-war treaties.

Vilna was the capital of Lithuania but mainly populated by the Polish.

In 1920, a private Polish army took control of it.

Lithuania appealed to the League, the League's first test.

Poland was the clear agressor, though many could see its case.

The League protested to Poland but Poland did not withdraw, leaving the League stuck.

France did not want to send troops as they saw Poland as a future ally against Germany.

Britain was not going to send in soldiers without the backing of France.

In the end, the League did nothing.

Poland kept Vilna.

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Country Disputes Failures - Corfu 1923

An Italian general, Tellini, was called to sort out the border of Greece and Albania.

On the 27th of August, Tellini and his men were ambushed and killed.

Italian Mussolini was furious, blamed the Greek government and demanded it pay compensation and kill the murderers.

The Greeks however did not know who the murderers were so Mussolini attacked and occupied the Greek island Corfu on the 31st.

Fifteen were killed so Greece appealed to the League.

7th of September, the League condemned Mussolini's actions and suggested Greece pay compensation to Italy that would would be held with the League until the killers were found.

Officially, Mussolini accepted, but behind the scenes he persuaded the Conference of Ambassadors to change the ruling.

So instead, the Greeks had to apologise a pay direct compensation to Italy. 

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Country Disputes Failures - The Geneva Protocol 19

The League was undermined by the Corfu incident.

Britain and France drew up the Geneva Protocol.

it said that if a dispute was taken up with the League the Coucil's decision was final.

However, before it was final there was a general election in Britain.

The new conservative government refused to sign it.

So the protocol was not made making the League look even weaker than before.

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Country Disputes Failures - Bulgaria 1925

Greek soldiers were killed after an incident on the border between Greece and Bulgaria.

October 1925, Greek troops invaded Bulgaria.

Bulgaria appealed to the League.

The League condemned Greece's actions and demanded they pay compensation.

Greece obeyed.

However, they did say there seemed to be one rule for large states and another for smaller ones.

This was true so therefore made the League look weak.

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World Wide Improvement - Part 1

Refugees About 400,000 prisoners were returned to their home.

The League quickly stamped out cholera, smallpox and dysentry in Turkish refugee camps containing hundreds of thousand of people.

Working Conditions The International Labour Organisation banned poisonous white lead from paint and general working conditions.

They limited hours small children could work. 

They limited the working man's conditions to a 48-hour week and an 8-hour day.

Health The Health comitee worked to defeat leprosy.

They worked to kill mosquitoes which carry malaria and yellow fever. 

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World Wide Improvement - Part 2

Transport The League made recommendations on making shipping lanes.

They produced an international highway code.

Social Problems They blacklisted German, Dutch, French and Swiss companies involved in illegal drug trade.

It freed 200,000 slaves in British-owned Sierra Leone.

It organised raids against slave owners and traders in  Burma.

It challanged the use of forced labour to build the African Tanganyika railway which has the deathrate of 50% and brought it down to 4%.

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Disarmament

Disarmament was the biiggest step.

At the Washington Conference, 1921, Japan, USA, Britain and France only decided to limit the size of their navies. 

This was damaging to the League as Germany was forced to disarm.

It was also one of the 4 main aims of the League when it started.

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