the Main Risks Of Surgery In 1845
no clean medical or surgical equipment
no protective equipment
no properly trained doctors
not wearing clean clothing when performing operations
people watching the operations which spread disease and distracted the doctors
unclean operating theatre
no methods of pain relief
the wooden operating table was difficult to clean
What the source suggests
What impression does the source give
What does the source show
Inference Question Answer
Source A shows that the operation was completed by a ‘short, quick stroke of the knife’.
This suggests that the doctors didn’t care about their patients being in pain.
As anaesthetics hadn't been discovered yet the patients didn’t have any form of pain relief.
1799 Humphrey Davy discovered pain could be relieved by inhaling nitrous oxide, laughing gas, but surgeons didn't use it
1842 Crawford Long found that ether was a useful anaesthetic but he didn’t publically announce his discovery
1845 Horace Wells saw people inhaling nitrous oxide and injuring themselves with no pain but realised that nitrous oxide didn’t work on everyone
1846 John Warren provided anaesthetics through an operation and managed to remove a tumour without the patient feeling pain
1846 Robert Liston used ether to remove a tooth and a leg
1847 James Simpson didn’t like the use of ether as anaesthetic as he thought it was dangerous so he tested chloroform with his friends. They tried in on 50 patients and it seemed to work better than ether.
He developed the chloroform inhaler
Cross Referencing Questions
Identify the key messages in each source
Establish the overall message of each source
Think carefully about the extent to which one source supports or challenges another source
Make a direct comparison between the sources
Cross Reference Answer
Paragraph 1 Explains how source 2 challenges source 1
Source 2 gives the impression that
However Source 3 suggests that
Paragraph 2 Explains ways in which source 2 does not challenge source 1
Source 2 does not challenge all the messages given in source 1. for example
Paragraph 3 Reaches an overall judgement about the extent to which source 2 challenges source 1
Overall source 2 challenges source 1 to a large/ small extent. This is because
The Black Period Of Surgery
1840’s to 1870’s
Step 1 annotate the source and spot the obvious clues in the source
Step 2 explain how the artist/writer is aiming to create a specific impression by including these details.
USE QUOTES FROM THE SOURCE
Step 1 consider the content what do we learn?, what do we not learn? What is missed out? What else would you want to know?
Step 2 consider the provenance of the source what is the nature of the source? What type of source is it? What are the origins of the source? Who wrote or produced the source? When was it produced? What was the purpose of the source? How typical is the source?
Step 3 reach an overall judgement always end with a conclusion in which you reach a judgement, how useful is each source?, which source is the most useful? What is your key reason for reaching this judgement?
Provides details of both parties
How they were both important
And explains how the decision about importance has been made
1818 Blundell was the first human blood transfusion
1900 carl Landsteiner discovered blood groups
1st world war large numbers of people needed blood transfusions also gave more chances for surgery
Sodium citrate and important chemical advancement
Important Dates In Surgery
1799 Laughing gas (nitrous oxide) discovered as an anaesthetic by Humphrey Davy.
1844 Laughing gas used for the first time by Horace Wells.
1846 Ether used for the first the first time in the USA.
1848 Hannah Greener Died.
1853 Queen Victoria uses chloroform to give birth to her 8th child.
1850 Black Period infection bloodloss got worse.
1861 Germ theory discovered by Louis Pasteur.
1865 Carbolic spray found by Joseph Lister.
1878 Chicken cholera vaccine made by Louis Pasteur.
1901 For blood groups discovered by Karl Landenstenier.
1916 - A way of storing blood was developed.