- Repression of fathers work (Re-emancipation)
- Execution of Lenin's brother led to Bolsheviks killing Tsars family.
- Influence of Konstantin Pobedonovstev (leader of Russian Orthadox Church at the time)-wielding immense power and influence.
RUSSIFICATION & EDUCATIONAL REFORMS
- Middle class
- PEACEFUL MEANS
- Wanted parliamentary governments like the Brirish
- Wanted political freedom
- Radical & Marxism
- Industrial Development
- split into two factions:
- Wanted broadening
- More open, less radical
- more peaceful means, happy for people to join who agreed with their ideas
- Lenins followers
- Wanted revolution
- Believed the future of Russia lay in the hands of peasants
- Terrorist Wing - 'People's Will' etc
-Killing and strikes leading up to 1905 revolution
-killed Grand Duke Sergei (Tsars uncle) along with many other Tsarist officials in attempt to have a form of national government and rid of the tsarist regime.
- Peasant uprisings
NICHOLAS II (1894 - 1917)
- Sergei Witle - 'THE GREAT SPURT'
- rapid industrialisation
- infrastructure (Trans Siberian Railway) - import goods, increase economy
- unemployment decreased
- POOR WORKING/ LIVING CONDITIONS
- strikes etc.... - 1905 revolution
- peasant uprisings
- growth of radical parties
- October Manifesto - Octobrists (Liberals)
- Fundamental Law (1906)-creating a national parliament & The Dumas (supposedly allowing people to have a say in major reform)
- growth of political opposition
- Bloody Sunday
- widespread famine / failed harvests
- poor working living conditions
- peasants who migrated for work or land
- Russo-Japanese War HUMILIATING DEFEAT (morale loss, loss of life etc) made the country look weak and vulnerable
- St Petersberg Soviet - assembly of workers, 400 strikers, organised strikes and published demands for radical social reform
- DUMA 1. - 73 Days, 2/391 requests passed
VYBORG MANIFESTO- 200 of the Duma 1 representatives refuesed to pay taxes as a form of resistance.
- DUMA 2. - Vyborg Manifesto participants not allowed
- 3 months & critisized army.
- DUMA 3. - electoral reform (only 30% richest men)
-land reforms - Duma of 'Lords & Lackeys'
- DUMA 4. - Stolypin assasinated, Finance minister took his place. Interrupted by WW1.
STOLYPIN UNDER NICHOLAS II
1906 - 1911
- independent peasantry
- redemption payments abolished, cheap land in Siberia
- freed peasants from commune.
- introduced death sentences, ceased newspapers, shut trade unions (decreased opposition)
1912 - 1914 demonstrations over living and working conditions.
- poor military performance - Battle of Tannenburg
- Military loss
- Nicholas II takes over as chief in command
- Economic crisis on home front, food shortages
- Tsarina distrusted all work effort and the influence of Rasputin deteriorated home front ( both political and economical)
- PROGRESSIVE BLOC (236/442 Duma representatives) - opposed Tsarism for a trusting government
FEB REV 1917 - TSAR ABDICATES
- Faced problems after war - challenges to political authority, break down of army & economic crisis / conditions of peasants.
- Return of Lenin - April Thesis -July Days (attempt of Bolshevik teakeover) - Lenin fled due to its failure and red guards put in prison.
- Government united with the soviet in attempt to bring order.
- Kerensky becomes Prime Minister
- Kornilov Affair - Kerensky releases Bolsheviks armed to fight General Kornilov (due to his poor judgement and paranoia that Kornilov and his troops were attempting to start a revolution)
-Bolsheviks made to look like hero's and state protectors
OVERTHROW OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT
- Kornilov Affair - Kerensky releases Bolsheviks and red guards from prison, supplies weaponary to overthrow General Kornilovs "Apparent coup d'etat" which was in fact just kerenskys paranoia.
-Bolsheviks made to look like heroes and protectors of the state.
- Overthrow took place 5th Jan 1918, First Assembly Meeting, dispersed by Trotsky's red guards and by morning Lenin & Bolsheviks were in power.
- Communist dictatorship - Lenin.
UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (USSR)
- 15 republics combined
- possessing own government in control of internal affairs such as education & health
- power still laid with communists
- multi-national communist state
- Replaced 'war communism'
- Trading allowed amongst peasants
- peasant tax introduced
- new currency to end inflation
- ban of independent factions
- Markets returned
- Produce increase
- Livestock increase
- Famine ended
- Peasants have more land
- No food shortages
BOLSHEVIKS COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP UNDER LENIN
- Civil War 1918 - 1919 - many different opponents, some people want return of Tsarism, others such as the Czechs wanted their own national state.
- WAR COMMUNISM -attempt to supply the army with their needs
- grain requistioning, terror, rationing etc...
- 1921 - famine - 7 million died.
creation of NEP