History Russia-1924

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ALEXANDER III

1881-1894

  • Repression of fathers work (Re-emancipation)
  • Okhrana
  • Execution of Lenin's brother led to Bolsheviks killing Tsars family.
  • Influence of Konstantin Pobedonovstev (leader of Russian Orthadox Church at the time)-wielding immense power and influence. 

RUSSIFICATION & EDUCATIONAL REFORMS
 

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LIBERALS

  • Middle class
  • PEACEFUL MEANS
  • Wanted parliamentary governments like the Brirish
  • Wanted political freedom
  • Octobensts
  • Kadets
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SOCIAL DEMOCRATS

  • Radical & Marxism
  • Industrial Development
  • split into two factions: 

MENSHEVIKS (minority)

  • Wanted broadening
  • More open, less radical
  • more peaceful means, happy for people to join who agreed with their ideas 

BOLSHEVIKS (majority)

  • Lenins followers
  • Wanted revolution
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SOCIAL REVOLUTIONAIRES

  • Believed the future of Russia lay in the hands of peasants
  • Anarchists
  • Terrorist Wing - 'People's Will' etc

     -Killing and strikes leading up to 1905 revolution
     -killed Grand Duke Sergei (Tsars uncle) along with many other Tsarist officials in attempt to have a form of national government and rid of the tsarist regime.

  • Peasant uprisings
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NICHOLAS II (1894 - 1917)

  • Sergei Witle - 'THE GREAT SPURT'

     - rapid industrialisation

     - infrastructure (Trans Siberian Railway) - import goods, increase economy

  • unemployment decreased
  • POOR WORKING/ LIVING CONDITIONS

     - strikes etc.... - 1905 revolution

     - peasant uprisings

  • growth of radical parties
  • October Manifesto - Octobrists (Liberals)
  • Fundamental Law (1906)-creating a national parliament & The Dumas (supposedly allowing people to have a say in major reform)
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1905 REVOLUTION

CAUSES

  • growth of political opposition
  • Bloody Sunday
  • widespread famine / failed harvests
  • poor working living conditions
  • SLUMS

    - peasants who migrated for work or land

  • Russo-Japanese War HUMILIATING DEFEAT (morale loss, loss of life etc) made the country look weak and vulnerable
  • St Petersberg Soviet - assembly of workers, 400 strikers, organised strikes and published demands for radical social reform
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THE DUMAS

  •  DUMA 1. - 73 Days, 2/391 requests passed

       VYBORG MANIFESTO- 200 of the Duma 1 representatives refuesed to pay taxes as a form of resistance.

  •  DUMA 2. - Vyborg Manifesto participants not allowed

                       - 3 months & critisized army.

  •  DUMA 3. - electoral reform (only 30% richest men)

                       -land reforms  - Duma of 'Lords & Lackeys'

  •  DUMA 4.  - Stolypin assasinated, Finance minister took his place. Interrupted by                        WW1.
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STOLYPIN UNDER NICHOLAS II

1906 - 1911

  • independent peasantry

     - redemption payments abolished, cheap land in Siberia

     - freed peasants from commune.

  • introduced death sentences, ceased newspapers, shut trade unions (decreased opposition)

1912 - 1914  demonstrations over living and working conditions.

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WW1

  •  poor military performance - Battle of Tannenburg
            - Military loss 
    - Nicholas II takes over as chief in command
  • Economic crisis on home front, food shortages
  • Tsarina distrusted all work effort and the influence of Rasputin deteriorated home front ( both political and economical)
  • PROGRESSIVE BLOC (236/442 Duma representatives) - opposed Tsarism for a trusting government

FEB REV 1917 - TSAR ABDICATES

                                                

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PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT

  • Faced problems after war - challenges to political authority, break down of army & economic crisis / conditions of peasants. 
  • Return of Lenin - April Thesis -July Days (attempt of Bolshevik teakeover) - Lenin fled due to its failure and red guards put in prison.
  • Government united with the soviet in attempt to bring order.
  • Kerensky becomes Prime Minister
  • Kornilov Affair - Kerensky releases Bolsheviks armed to fight General Kornilov (due to his poor judgement and paranoia that Kornilov and his troops were attempting to start a revolution)
    -Bolsheviks made to look like hero's and state protectors 
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OVERTHROW OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT

  • Kornilov Affair - Kerensky releases Bolsheviks and red guards from prison, supplies weaponary to overthrow General Kornilovs "Apparent coup d'etat" which was in fact just kerenskys paranoia.

-Bolsheviks made to look like heroes and protectors of the state.

  • Overthrow took place 5th Jan 1918, First Assembly Meeting, dispersed by Trotsky's red guards and by morning Lenin & Bolsheviks were in power. 
  • Communist dictatorship - Lenin.
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UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (USSR)

  • 15 republics combined
  • possessing own government in control of internal affairs such as education & health
  • power still laid with communists
  • multi-national communist state
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NEP

  • Replaced 'war communism'
  • Trading allowed amongst peasants
  • peasant tax introduced
  • new currency to end inflation
  • ban of independent factions

     IMPACT

  • Markets returned
  • Produce increase
  • Livestock increase
  • Famine ended
  • Peasants have more land
  • No food shortages
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BOLSHEVIKS COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP UNDER LENIN

  • Civil War 1918 - 1919 - many different opponents, some people want return of Tsarism, others such as the Czechs wanted their own national state.

- WAR COMMUNISM -attempt to supply the army with their needs

- grain requistioning, terror, rationing etc...

  • 1921 - famine - 7 million died.

creation of NEP

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