History Revision.

Revision for test before exams on Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.

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Questions. (OCR 2008)

(a) Briefly describe what people believed about the causes of disease at the beginning of the 19th century. (5 Marks)

  • People believed Spontaneous Generation caused disease.
  • They thought germs arose from rotting matter.
  • They saw bacteria in rotting meat and assumed the rotted meat caused them.
  • Points might include: spontaneous generation, miasma, theory of the Four Humours, God.

  • Eg. ‘They thought that disease was caused by bad air. they thought that that bad smells caused disease and they were caused by rubbish rotting in the streets. Some people knew about germs but thought that germs were caused by things rotting, not the other way round.' (5)
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Model answer.

Spontaneous Generation

  • Scientists didn't realise that it was the germs that was making people ill.
  • They thought that disease caused the germs and not the other way around.
  • Louis Pasteur questioned this theory.

Theory of the Four Humours

  • Still used the four humours for treating disease.

God

  • Some still had a belief in the supernatural.
  • 'God caused and cured disease.'
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Part (b).

(b) Explain why Pasteur was able to make important advances in medicine. (7 Marks)

  • Pasteur's own knowledge of chemistry, his experiments, his own genius, needs of French industry, chance, team work, rivalry with other scientists, national rivalry with Germany.

  • Award 6 marks for one reason explained and another identified.

  • Award 7 marks for two reasons explained.
  • 'Chance helped Pasteur a lot. When his assistant was injecting chickens with germs he forgot to do it because he wanted to rush off on his holiday. When he came back he did the injections then. The chickens did not die. Pasteur worked out that the germs that had been left had got weaker. When they were injected into the chickens they were not strong enough to kill them but they did give the chickens protection from disease. Pasteur realised this told him how vaccination worked but he would not have know without the chance factor.'

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Model Answer

1st point:

Chance helped Pasteur a lot. When his assistant was injecting chickens with germs he forgot to do it because he wanted to rush off on his holiday. When he came back he did the injections then. The chickens did not die. Pasteur worked out that the germs that had been left had got weaker. When they were injected into the chickens they were not strong enough to kill them but they did give the chickens protection from disease. Pasteur realised this told him how vaccination worked but he would not have know without the chance factor.'

(Need another point explainned)

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Part (c)

'Pasteur is more important than Koch in the the history of medicine'. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (8 Marks)

Pasteur was better because...

  • Proved Spontaneous Generation wrong
  • Proved germ theory right.
  • Made swan necked flasks - long necks captured germs.
  • Showed that disease in animals was caused by germs.
  • Showed how vaccination worked.

Koch was better because...

  • Made it easier to study germs - though a glass slide.
  • Discovered that germs were causing anthrax - infected animals.
  • Stains and photos germs - method for discovering which germ for which disease.
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Model Answer.

'

I think Koch was much more important because he was the person who made it much easier to study germs and this led to lots of other discoveries. Koch knew that the germ causing a disease would grow more quickly so he was able to isolate that germ. Once doctors knew which germ was causing the disease they could develop a drug to kill it like with tuberculosis. Koch also found a way of staining germs. This made it easier to study them. Koch's work let scientists study germs properly for the first time.'

Do a long term paragraph for Pasteur also.

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