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Why did so many children work in factories in the

  • they were cheap
  • they didn't complain
  • they were small, so they could fit under small machines
  • they didn't have many rights 
  • there was a lot of them
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What were conditions like for children workers in

  • Long Working Hours: 12-14 hours per day
  • Low Wages: women and children were paid very cheaply.  
  • Cruel discipline: often hit with leather straps, dunked in water, hung in baskets from the ceiling. 
  • Fierce System of Fines: talking, whistling, tardiness. 
  • Accidents: forcing children to crawl into dangerous, ungarded machines led to many accidents.
  • Health: pneumonia, dust led to lung disease, loud noises damaged hearing.
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Which Factory Acts were passed to improve conditio

In 1833- Factory Act: 

  • no children under 9 allowed to work
  • children 9-13 limited to 9 hours per day, attend 2 hours of school per day
  • 14-18 limited to 12 hours work per day

In 1842 - Mines Act :

  • Mines Act banned employment of all women and girls&boys below 10 in coal mines

In 1844 - Factory Act:

  • children 8-13 limited to 6 and 1/2 hours per day, attend 3 hours school per day
  • women limited to 10 hours per day
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What was a philanthropist?

  • A philanthropist is someone who donates their money to charitable causes. 
  • Florence Nightingale: Rich background. Trained to be nurse. Led 36 nurses to help wounded souldiers in Crimean war. Improved conditions in hospitals. Founded Nightingale School for Nurses. Changed people's attitudes towards women. Improved lives of poor. 
  • Dr Barnardo: Gave up dreams of moving to China to provide homes and education for poor children. Opened ragged schools to educated and care for oprhans. Home for boys provided shelter. Girls villaged homed 1500 poor girls. Estimated that his homes and schools cared for 8000+ children. The Barnardo's is still in existence.  
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What did Joseph Rowntree discover?

  • Joseph Rowntree discovered that old age, poor wages and sickness were the main causes of poverty. 
  • The Poverty Line: Anyone earning less than 21 shillings and 8 pence per week is in poverty for a family of five.
  • Bare Physical Efficiency: Having just enough to survive - food, clothes, rent and only essentials. 
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What was wrong with the voting system in the 19th

  • In 1830 most population excluded from voting. Nobody under 21 or women could vote.
  • MPs from Britain's richest families.
  • Bribery and threats used.
  • Voting was public.
  • Working-class had no say.
  • local landowner powerful and controls election. 
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Who were the Suffragettes and what tactics did the

Suffragists: wished to obtain the vote for women through peaceful means. 
Suffragettes: members of the WSPU who fought to win British women the right to vote. 

  • Members chained themselves to raillings, held marches, ofught policemen, broke windows, slashed paintings, set fire to buildings and threw bombs for publicity.
  • Emily Davison ran out in front of the King's horse and was killed.
  • "Deeds not words".
  • Weekly newspaper "Votes for Women".
  • Purple = dignity. Green = living things. White = purity.
  • November 1910 PM promised to give women vote, but election was called and plan abolished. 300 women protested and beaten up.
  •  From 1910, Suffragettes became more militant (violent). 
  • street lamps were broken, axe thrown at PM, painting Venus slashed. 
  • Sent to prison, went on hunger strikes.
  • Cat and Mouse act: (1914) allowed hunger strikers to be released until health improved and then they would arrest them to complete their sentences.
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